Mustard is grown as an oilseed crop in Pakistan. After cotton, mustard is the second most important source of oil and contributes on an average, about 21 percent in the edible oil production.



Edible oil-producing crops are of great importance as they are the main component of food. The production of edible oil in the country is low compared to the requirements. In view of the increase in population and the increasing trend of nutrition in the diet, shortage of this is increasing. To meet the consumption of edible oil, it is being imported by spending a lot of foreign exchange. Increase in domestic production of edible oil is inevitable to reduce import burden. Due to better strategy of Agriculture Department, Government of Punjab and subsidy on oilseed crops, the area and production under cultivation of oilseed has increased significantly in recent years, However, better production technology, promotion of developed varieties, uninterrupted supply of agricultural inputs and better marketing system of grains can further increase edible oil production. Oily crops and plants include mustard/canola, Rapeseed, raya, sesame, peanut, sunflower, soybean, quinoa, cotton and maize. Some other crops and plants can also be counted in this category to produce edible oils such as Palm, Coconut, Olive, etc., while Linseed, Castor, Jojoba and Taramira oil is of industrial and medicinal importance.

Canola/ Mustard, Rapeseed and Raya

The main oilseed crops grown in Zaid Kharif and Rabi in Punjab include Canola/Mustard, Rapeseed, Raya, Taramira and Linseed. The oil obtained from them is widely used in cooking, industrial products and other household necessities. The area under cultivation, total production and average production of canola/mustard, Rapeseed and Raya during the last five years in Punjab is given in Table No. 1.

Table No. 1: Area, Production and Average Production Canola, Mustard, Rapeseed and Raya



Total Production

Average Production


Thousand Acres

Thousand Hectares

Thousand metric tons

Maund (40 kg) per acre

Kilograms per Hectare





































Decrease in area:               

In 2020-21, the area under oilseeds decreased by 48% as compared to the previous year, as the area of oilseeds shifted to other crops.

Approved Types

Oilseed crops are divided into two groups according to the time of cultivation, the details of which are as follows.

  1. Tooria-A

This variety is ripened in 90 to 100 days. The amount of oil in it is 44 percent. Its general yield is 10 to 12 maund per acre. Since insects are needed for pollination, when the crop is on flowers and for some reason the number of insects decreases, its production can be affected.

  1. ARRI Canola

This variety is ripened in 95 to 110 days. After its cultivation, late varieties of wheat can be cultivated. Its general production is 18 to 20 maund per acre while the production capacity is upto 30 maund per acre. The amount of oil in it is up to 40 percent. It is a domestically developed variety of raya, which does not have harmful health ingredients, so its oil can be used for cooking and its shell can be fed to milk animals and chickens.

 1 ۔ Chakwal Raya

This variety can be grown as both fodder and seed. Due to its strong stem, it is protected from falling and ripens evenly. Its legumes do not fall during harvesting even when they are over-ripened. This type has resistance against diseases and is not lost even after growing in severe drought. Its general production is 18 to 20 maund per acre and the amount of oil in it is upto 39 percent.

2 ۔ Khanpur Raya

This variety of Raya has good productivity. Its seed is relatively thick. Its general production is 18 to 20 maund per acre while the production capacity is 37 maund per acre. The amount of oil in it is upto 42 percent.

3 ۔  Super Raya:

It is a high-yielding variety of Raya, with a general yield of about 20 maund per acre while the production capacity is up to 42 maund per acre.

4۔ Sarson D-G-L (Dark Green Leaves)

This is a type of green mustard.  Its leaves are dark green and the branches are quite thick and soft. It is very much liked as a green mustard and for animal feed. This variety is being successfully cultivated in almost all of Punjab. Even after cutting the green mustard, it yields 10 to 15 maund per acre. The amount of oil in it is 40 to 42 percent.

5۔ Chakwal Sarson

This is a high yielding variety of green mustard. This variety also gives better yield in drought. Its general production is 20 to 25 maund per acre while the production capacity is 32 maund per acre. The amount of oil in it ranges from 40 to 42 percent.

 6 ۔  Rohi Sarson:

This is a new high yielding variety of green mustard. Its general production is about 21 maund per acre while the production capacity is upto 39 maund per acre. It can be cultivated in the central and southern areas of Punjab.

Canola types:

These are types of green mustard, whose oil contains a lot of harmful ingredients. Due to their short height, chemical fertilizers are better tolerated, they are less chance to fall and the yield is much better. Their shell can be fed to milk animals and chickens. The approved types of canola are as follows:

7۔ Saandal Canola:

This is a modern variety of canola in green mustard, which was approved in 2019. Its legumes are longer than other canola legumes. The grain is thick and black in color. Its oil is beneficial for health. Its seeds contain more than 42% oil and yield ranges from 25 to 30 maund per acre. Production can be achieved even more than that.

 8 ۔ Super Canola:

This green mustard canola variety was approved for cultivation in 2018. This variety has high yield as well as better resistance against dehydration and lodging. The number of legumes in its plants is much higher than the normal canola varieties. Its oil is also rich in healthy ingredients. Its general production is 25 maund per acre while the production capacity is upto 30 maund per acre. Production can be achieved even more than that. The amount of oil in its seed is upto 43 percent.

9. PARC Canola:

 PARC canola is a hybrid variety of mustard. This variety is compatible with our climate and land and has excellent productivity. It can be successfully cultivated in all the districts of Punjab, but it is more compatible with the climate and land of the northern districts of Punjab. Its general production is 18 to 21 maund per acre while the production capacity is 32 maund per acre. The amount of oil in it ranges from 40 to 42 percent, which is free from harmful health components and very useful for human health.

In addition to the above varieties of canola, local and hybrid varieties of private companies are also available, which have good productivity.


Seeds Availability:

The seeds can be obtained from Punjab Seed Corporation, various agricultural research institutes such as National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad, Department of Oilseed, Ayub Research Institute Faisalabad, Oilseeds Research Center Khanpur, Regional Agricultural Research Institute Bahawalpur, Barani Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal and registered private seed companies.


When on the plants appear four leaves, prune canola mustard, rapeseed and raya. While thinning, remove weak and disease plants and keep the distance between the plants 4 to 6 inches. In any case, do thinning before the first irrigation.

Seed Rate:

To get good yield of canola, mustard, rapeseed, raya and taramira, use healthy and clean seeds whose germination is not less than 80%,1.5 to 2 kilograms per acre. If there is less moisture in the soil, the number of seed should be increased. Use 2 to 2.5 kilograms per acre seed in rainfed areas.

Seed treatment:

To protect the crop from diseases, sow the seed with fungicide Thiophanate-methyl 2.5 grams per kg seed.


Time cultivation and endurance:

Growing these crops at the right time is very important for good yield otherwise the yield decreases. The time for cultivation/harvesting of various varieties of oilseeds (mustard, rapeseed, raya, canola) is given in Table No. 2.

Table No. 2 : Time of Cultivation and Tolerance of Approved Varieties

1)  Zaid kharif varieties:



Time to cultivate

Harvest time


        1) Tooria-                  A    

All Punjab          

15 August to 30 September        

1 December to 20 December          


     2)  IRI                   Canola    

North Punjab


Central Punjab

South Punjab

25 August to 15 September

1-30 September

15-30 September

5 December to 25 December

15 January to 15 February


2)  Rabi types:



Time to cultivate

Harvest time


1) Canola Types (PARC          Canola, Super Canola and Saandal Canola) ,other approved hybrid varieties

North Punjab


Central Punjab

South Punjab

20 September to 31 October

1-31 October

Mid-March to

Start April

Loam or sandy loam is suitable for these types. Sowing in central and southern Punjab should start from 1 October.

2)  Super Raya,

3)  Khanpur Raya

All Punjab               

15 September to 15 October  

Start March to start April

Give better yields in areas with fertile lands and low water resources.

4)  Chakwal Raya        

All Punjab               

15 September to 15 October

The whole month of April

Loam or sandy loam is suitable for these types. Sowing in central and southern Punjab should start from 1 October.

5)  Chakwal Sarson

All Punjab               

15 September to 15 October

The whole month of April

Loam or sandy loam is suitable for this.

6)  Sarson D-G-L,

7)  Rohi Sarson

All Punjab               

1 October to 31 October               



8)  Taramira

Districts of Bhakkar, Khushab, Rahim Yar Khan, Mianwali, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur and areas with deficient rainfall.

Rainfed Areas

(1 September to Late October) 

Irrigated areas

(Early October to mid-November)




Late March to Early April


9)  Taramira

Rawalpindi Division

Mid-August to Mid-September

The month of March  


Note: The best time to cultivate canola/mustard for a good yield is the first week of October.

Preparation of land and cultivation methods

Prepare the land well and use laser land leveler for levelling of land. Canola, Taramira, Rapeseed and Raya should be cultivated by drill 1 to 1.5 feet while Chakwal Raya, Chakwal Sarson, Sarson D-G-L, Rohi Sarson, Khanpur Raya and Super Raya should be cultivated in rows at a distance of 1.5 feet. The number of plants per acre should be 66 to 70 thousand. Cultivation should be done in wet moisture condition. Small seeded drill is also available for their cultivation which has good results. Make sure that the seed depth is not more than 1 to 1.5 inches at the time of cultivation. If the moisture is low in soil at the time of cultivation, mix the seeds in moist soil and leave it for about 6 hours and then cultivate. In unsuitable circumstances, cultivate in dry land and apply water after making ridges. It can also be cultivated in the saline soil like berseem.

Cultivation on ridges

Oilseeds can be successfully cultivated on ridges in rice areas, on clayey lands and in areas with high rainfall. This saves water and also protects the crop in case of excess rainfall. In this way, after preparing the land, broadcast seeds and fertilizers and plough and make ridges at a distance of 2.5 feet with the help of a tractor. For this method, various companies have introduced a planter called Ridger-cum-Seeder, which is available in the market. According to experiments conducted at Adaptive Research Gujranwala, good yield can be obtained by cultivating canola/ mustard and raya on ridges, after the harvesting of rice.

Intercropping of oilseeds

Short-duration varieties such as IRI canola, rapeseed etc. can also be cultivated in september cultivation of sugarcane as intercropping. In this method, if the distance between the lines of the sugarcane is 2.5 feet, then cultivate one line of oilseed if the distance between the lines of sugarcane is 4 feet, then two lines of oilseed should be cultivated. This method provides additional production of oilseeds and also protects the sugarcane crop from frost. Oilseed can also be intercropping in between standing cotton




Weed Control

Weeds control is necessary to get a good yield. Jai, Dumbi sitti, Lashkani Booti, Bathu, Karand, Shahtra and Itsit etc. are found in mustard and raya. There are two ways to control weeds.

Non Chemical Method:

Daab's Method:

This method is very suitable for the control of weeds. After rain or first irrigation, when the land is in a better moisture condition, after ploughing, give heavy planking and leave the field open for 5 to 7 days. This will grow the seeds of the weeds present in the field and eliminate them during the preparation of the land.


After germination the crop, do dry hoeing so that the weeds in the field are destroyed. Try to do hoeing before the rain.

Chemical method:

If the number of weeds is likely to be high and non-chemical methods are not possible, use the recommended pre-emergence herbicides immediately after sowing. Use these chemicals according to the recommendations of agriculture experts, otherwise there is a possibility of crop loss due to a little carelessness. In moderate weather, when the temperature is 35 °C or lower, S-Metolachlor (Dual Gold) 700-800 ml per acre can be sprayed by mixing it with 100 liters of water immediately after sowing. In order to destroy the Itsit within two weeks after germination, Metazachlor 400-500 ml per acre can be sprayed on the entire field including the crop.


3 to 4 irrigations are enough for canola varieties. The first irrigation should be given 25 to 30 days after germination, the second after flowering and the third in light quantities near formation of legumes. Be sure to do light irrigation in case of severe frost.

Apply the first irrigation to the IRI Canola within 15 to 20 days of cultivation, otherwise the later plants will not be able to ripen at the same time. Apply the first irrigation to Rapeseed after 20 to 25 days.


Use of fertilizers:

Balanced and appropriate use of fertilizers is very important to achieve better yields. Use fertilizers on the basis of laboratory analysis of the land. However, use fertilizers for the average fertile land at the following rate:

Table No. 3: Use of Fertilizer


Nutrients (Kg per Acre)

Amount of fertilizer (in bags) per acre




Super Raya, AARI Canola, Sarson D-G-L, Rohi Sarson    







1.25 bag DAP + 1 bag Urea + Half bag SOP/ MOP or

 1.25 bag TSP + 1.5 bags Urea + Half bag SOP / MOP





1 bag DAP + 0.75 bag Urea + half bag SOP/ MOP





Half bag DAP 1/3+ sack urea + half sack SOP/MOP or

Half bag TSP + Half bag Urea + Half bag SOP / MOP

Saandal Canola, PARC Canola Hybrid, Super Canola and Other Hybrid Varieties of Canola







1.5 bags DAP + 1 bag Urea + 1 bag SOP/ MOP or

1.5 bags TSP + 1.5 bags urea + 1 bag SOP / MOP

Chakwal Raya and Chakwal Sarson







1 bag DAP + 1 bag Urea + Half bag SOP/ MOP or

1 bag TSP + 1.5 bags Urea + half bag SOP / MOP


  • Use the whole amount of fertilizer at the time of sowing in rainfed areas.
  • Use phosphorus and potash fertilizers in irrigated areas at the time of sowing and nitrogenous fertilizers in two splits i.e., half on sowing and half before flowering.
  • Using 4 to 5 kilograms of Sulphur per acre with second irrigation has a good effect on production and quality.
  • If Ammonium sulfate fertilizer is available, use it instead of Urea.


The right time and method of harvesting is very important to achieve good yield and quality crop. Premature harvesting keeps the seed weak and sub-standard and reduces the amount of oil in the seed, while in the case of late harvesting, the legumes burst, the seeds start falling and the yield decreases. Therefore, when the color of the leaves starts to turn yellow and 75 percent of the legumes in raya and 50 percent of the legumes in canola / mustard become brown and the grains start turning reddish, then cut the crop immediately and tie small bundles. Gather 3 or 4 bundles together and place it in a high place in the open field so that the legumes are not damaged by the rain. After drying the crop in the sun for 6 to 10 days, threshing and separate the seeds.Threshers are also available for threshing. If the crop has been cultivated on large area, it would be better to use a combine harvester. In the case of harvesting with combine harvester, the color of 90% or more legumes should be brown.


Storage of grains:

Before storing, make sure that the grain is well dried, the moisture content in it is 8 percent and chewing with the teeth makes the sound of crack. Due to high humidity, there is chance to grow fungus. Warehouses should be inspected during storage and in case of disease or pest attack, they should be contacted and remedied. While storing seeds, make sure that different types of seeds do not mix.

Crop Calendar

Crop Plan