Brinjal

Eggplant is a widely grown specialty vegetable in Pakistan.

About

 Importance:

Eggplant is an important vegetable in the Indian subcontinent, China and Japan. It is cultivated commercially in the Mediterranean coastal areas, southern Europe, Florida, and Louisiana. It is a favorite vegetable of the people of Italy and France. It is available in the market throughout the year in Pakistan. Its fruit is useful for toothache. This booklet tries to cover all aspects of eggplant production technology so that farmers can follow them to increase the yield per acre of their crop. It is listed in

The area under cultivation, yield, and an average yield of brinjal.                                                                                                   

year

Area thousand hectares

 

Area thousand acres

Production thousand tons

Average yield kg/ha

Average yield per acre

2014-15

4.46

11.022

54.223

12156

131.8

2015-16

4.471

11.048

54.196

104354

1131.43

2016-17

4.474

11.056

55.371

12376

134.18

2017-18

4.735

11.7

59.877

12646

137.11

2018-19

4.685

11.518

61.844

13199

143.11

Suitable soil and climate:

Well-drained, fertile soil and warm, humid climate are suitable for producing high production of brinjal. The eggplant crop cannot tolerate cold and frost. Its leaves dry up. Flowering and fruiting stop and the plant dies.

 

Seeds

Approved types:

Advanced types include quirky (lamboutra), unique (tall) and hearty (round).

Seed rate:

About ten thousand plants are required for one acre to get a good crop of eggplant. For which 150 grams of seeds are enough.

Seed and nursery production:

About ten thousand plants are required for one acre to get a good harvest of eggplant. For which 150 grams of seeds are enough

The place for seedling cultivation should be a little higher than the normal ground so that in case of rain, excess water can be managed in a better way from the field and the plants can be protected from the harmful effects of excess water. Sow the seed in rows 4 inches apart in small square-shaped beds made on four or five marla land. Keep the seed depth half an inch. Before sowing, apply the recommended fungicide to the seed. After sowing, cover the seed with compost and manure. Remove the reeds when sprouting begins.

Cultivation

Suitable soil and climate:

Well-drained, fertile soil and warm, humid climate are suitable for producing high production of brinjal. The eggplant crop cannot tolerate cold and frost. Its leaves dry up. Flowering and fruiting stop and the plant dies

Cultivation time:

For the first crop of eggplant, plant the nursery in February and transplant it in March. This crop yields from May to September. For the second crop, seed is sown in late June and transplanted in July-August. Round varieties are usually grown in this season. This crop gives good yield from September to December. If this crop is protected from blight in winter, production can be taken again in February-March.

Land preparation and cultivation method:

To prepare the land, plough and harrow three to four times. Add 10 to 12 tons of cow dung fertilizer one month before planting. Move the plants to one side. Keep a distance of one and a half feet between plants. Water the field before transplanting the plants. It is better to do the transplant in the evening.

Diseases

Vegetable diseases and their control

Diseases

syptoms

control

 روئیں دار پھپھون


Downy Mildew

Cucumber, ghia pumpkin, chapan pumpkin, halwa pumpkin, ghia tori, cabbage, cabbage, bitter gourd, tubers, melon and peas.

 

Moist spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves. These spots are pointed and yellow, which later turn dark brown in color. These spots spread rapidly and soon cover the entire plant. All the leaves dry up and the plant wilts. The disease spreads rapidly in cloudy weather at temperatures above 15 degrees Celsius and humidity above 80%.

 

 


Maintain recommended plant spacing. If the crop is more dense, then humidity increases and the disease attack is more. • Try to water crops during the day to reduce moisture on their leaves and prevent the effects of disease. • In case of  severe disease spray at three days interval.

 

سفوفی پھپھوند 
Powdery Mildew

 Carrot, Cucumber, Ghee Pumpkin, Pumpkin, Garlic, Onion, Melon, Watermelon, Karela and Peas۔

White round spots start appearing on the lower surface of the leaves. White powder is also present in these spots. Gradually these spots appear on other parts of the plant like stem and fruit etc. In case of severe attack, the leaves turn brown and wither. Fruit growth is stunted and often the taste of the fruit is also affected. The severity of the disease increases due to temperature of 20 to 25 degrees Celsius and humidity less than 50%.

 

 Keep the field free from weeds.

• Cultivate resistant varieties.

• In case of disease attack, spray recommended fungicides with 5 days interval on alternating principle. Spray so that every part of the plant is thoroughly soaked.

 

 

مرجھاؤ
 Wilt

Cucumber, ghia pumpkin, chippan pumpkin, halwa pumpkin, ghia tori, bitter gourd, watermelon, melon, tarr, tomato, chili, green chili, capsicum and peas etc.

 

This disease is caused by an underground fungus, in case of attack, the supply of salts and water to the plant stops and its roots rot. The leaves on the stem of the plant dry up and the plant dies in one to two days. This disease can attack the crop at any time.

 

• Always apply the recommended fungicide to the seed.

• Always grow vegetables in healthy, disease-free soil.

• In case of cultivation in an infected field, water should not be applied from the infected field to the healthy field.

• Soak the seed  in a recommended fungicide solution before moving it.

• Spray with recommended fungicides in case of infestation.

 

 

جنوبی جھلساؤ
 Southern Blight/crown rot

Carrot, Tomato, Eggplant, Halwa Pumpkin, Chapan Pumpkin, Ghia Tori, Watermelon, Melon, Cucumber, Pepper, Capsicum etc.

 

 

The attack of the disease is mostly on the part of the stem which is slightly above the ground or sunken into the ground, due to the growth of the fungus the stem rots and the fruit which is lying on the ground, from the stem of the infected plant. A whitish thread-like glue oozes out and if the stem of the infected plant is cut transversely from above, sclerotia can be seen in it, which appear in the form of small pearls which are white in color at first and later on. Red and then brown in color. The disease destroys the food canals of the plant and the plant wilts and dies.

 

 

• Plant the crop on high ridges  so that water does not reach the plant stem.

• Apply fungicides before sowing the seeds.

• Cultivate resistant varieties.

• Do not sow in a field affected by southern blight.

• If cultivated vegetables show symptoms of southern blight, apply the recommended fungicide.

 

اگیتا جھلساؤ
Early Blight

Cucumber, Melon, Watermelon, Tomato, Capsicum and Green Chilli etc.

 

Deep concentric spots appear on the lower surface of the leaves, which later appear on the upper surface of the leaves as well. In the severity of the disease, these spots appear on the entire plant and the plants appear scorched. At 20 to 30 degrees Celsius the severity of the disease increases in temperature and 60% humidity in the air.

 

 In case of disease, spray with recommended fungicide at 5-day intervals.

 

تنے اور جڑ کا گلاؤ  
 Collar Rot

Green pepper, red pepper, capsicum, ginger, melon, watermelon, cucumber and pumpkin family vegetables.

 

Ink-like spots are formed on the stem near the root, which later take the form of a black halo. The supply of salts and water to the plant is completely stopped. The plant wilts and dies in one to two years.

 

  • Always treat the seed with fungicide before sowing.               Soak cruciferous vegetables in a fungicide solution before transplanting.

• Grow crops on high ridges If possible, irrigate the crops with the help of drip irrigation system. If not available, water the crop in such a way that the water does not reach the stem of the plant in any way.

• Use recommended fungicides in case of disease.

 

 

پتوں کے داغ  Leaf Spot

Almost all vegetables


Small moist spots begin to appear on the leaves, which later turn yellow and later brown. In extreme heat, these spots coalesce and the plant does not meet its nutritional requirements properly.

 As soon as the disease appears, spray thoroughly at 5-day intervals, keeping in mind the principle of alternating between the recommended fungicides, so that the plant is completely soaked with the fungicide.

 

سبزیات کا جراثیمی جھلساؤ

Ginger, tomato, melon, watermelon, pepper, chili, capsicum and pumpkin etc.

 

The germs of this disease are present in the seed or in the soil and the cause of its spread is bacteria. Symptoms of the disease include yellowing of the leaves, stunting and wilting of the plant. If the roots of the infected plant are cut and placed in water, the bacterial material begins to ooze out of the plant. The roots appear pink or dark brown in color. The disease is caused by injury to plants during weeding or by attack by underground nematodes. The disease disrupts the plant's food system and it dies within a day or two.

 

• Never plant crops in an already infected field.

• Do not choose soils with low water absorption.

• Uproot and destroy severely affected plants.

• Never apply water from infected fields to healthy fields.

• During pruning, care should be taken to ensure that the roots of the plant are not injured.

• Never use unnecessary transport and agricultural machinery.

 

اکھیڑا
Root rot

Chilli, Capsicum, Green Chilli, Cucumber, Ghia Kadu, Halwa Kadu, Ghia Tori, Karela and Chapan Kadu etc.

 

The leaves of the plant turn yellow and their growth stops completely. The leaves of the plant appear wilted. The stem of the affected plant near the surface appears more flowery than healthy plants and if the plant If you look at the root, you can see the roots are twisted. The attack of this disease becomes more severe in dry soil with rise in underground temperature.

 

  • Be sure to apply the recommended fungicide before sowing the seed.

• Apply recommended fungicide sprays in case of infestation.

 

 

سبزیوں کے خطئیے 
(Nematode)

Almost all vegetables

The cause of this disease is nematoad. The height of the plant remains small. The leaves look yellow. The plants look wilted. Insects injure plant roots and cause transmission of other disease-causing bacteria. Like wilting and rotting etc.

 

 Use as recommended for prevention.

 

بیج کا گلاؤ/نوخیز پودوں کا مرجھاؤ

All vegetables grown from seed

 

 The cause of seed blight is a fungus. The plant does not emerge from the seed or dies as soon as it emerges. If the disease occurs on a large plant, it withers and dries up and dies.

 

• Do not sow in an infected field.

• Always plant the seed with fungicide.

• Use recommended fungicides.

 

کوڑھ

Cucumber, Pumpkin, Melon, Tar, Halwa Pumpkin, Tenda, Karela, Zucchini, Watermelon

 

Elongated spots appear on the leaves, stem and fruit which first become small and later become larger. The spots are pointed or relatively round in shape and grow rapidly and turn brown. If the disease originates from diseased seed, first the leaves wither and spots form on the stem near the ground level and the plant dies. The disease survives in plant debris and seeds. It develops along with the crop in the field. Transmitted to healthy plants by water, rain and insects.

 

 

• Destroy weeds.

• Use recommended fungicides.

 

مائروتھیشم کا  جھلساؤ
Karela, Pumpkin and Tenda etc

 

The disease appears as pale yellow spots on the edges of the leaves. The spots later turn dark yellow and then brown and finally black. As the disease progresses, the spots enlarge and cover the entire leaf. It is spread from infected plants by droppings and seeds during the months of July to September. The optimum temperature is 28 to 38 degrees Celsius.

 

• Always plant the seed with fungicide.

• In case of disease, spray recommended fungicides at 5-day intervals on alternating basis.

 

پھل کی سڑن غیر جراثیمی بیماری

This is not a disease, but in hot weather, when the water requirement increases and the fruit does not get adequate calcium, the symptoms of the disease appear. The tomato fruit turns brown on the back, which later turns black. Sometimes black spots are formed inside the fruit.

 

Apply the recommended fungicide as soon as symptoms appear.

 

ککر بٹس کی وائرسی امراض

More than 30 types of viral diseases attack cucurbits, including cucumber mosaic virus, squash mosaic virus, watermelon mosaic virus, zucchini yellow mosaic virus, papaya ring spot virus, etc. The symptoms of these viral diseases are similar. Distortion of the shape of the leaf. Formation of light and dark spots. Green matter surrounded by yellow color or loss of green matter. The height of the affected plant will be short. The leaves will turn upwards or downwards from the edges. The fruit will be less on the affected plants.

 

Weeds should be destroyed.

Varieties having immunity should be cultivated. At the beginning of the disease, destroy the few affected plants.

Sap-sucking insects should be controlled with recommended insecticides.

Use small amounts of balanced fertilizers at regular intervals to boost plant immunity.

کھیرے کا پچی کاری وائرس

Its symptoms include yellowing of mosaic leaves, emergence of leaf veins, distortion of leaf shape, reduction of leaf size and formation of dead spots on the leaf. The overall production may decrease by 60%.

 

 

بھنڈی توری کا زرد رنگ کا وائرس

This virus is constantly transmitted by whiteflies. Due to this disease, the veins of the leaves first begin to turn yellow, which gradually turns deep yellow. Gradually, the large and small veins become thick and all over the leaves. It becomes a yellowish web. Sometimes the green matter in the leaf is completely lost and the diseased plant is visible from a distance. The fruit also turns yellowish and its size remains small.

 

 

Pests

Vegetable pests and their control:

سست تیلہ
(Aphids)

Tomato, eggplant, okra, melon, cabbage, cabbage, turnip, watermelon and other vegetables.

 

Adults and juveniles of aphid cause damage by sucking sap from the lower surface of the leaves. They excrete a sweet substance from their bodies, which causes black spots on the leaves and the decomposing process of the leaves is severely affected. Its attack is severe from mid-February to March. The growth of young plants is stunted and the plants do not produce enough. The weather with high humidity and low temperature is very helpful in the growth of aphid Adult moths are also found in vegetable crops, which keep moving from one field to another. This pest usually spreads viral diseases. In case of severe infestation, the crop looks black.

 

  Increase the number of insect enemies such as ladybird beetles and crysoperla to combat aphids. Spray with high-pressure water with a power sprayer. In case of severe infestation, spray with recommended insecticides.

 

چست تیلہ
(Jassids)

Okra, Zucchini, Eggplant, Chili and Veggies

 

Both juveniles and adults suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves. The edges of the leaves turn dark yellow and later turn red. These later dry up and become cup-shaped at the bottom or top and severe attack. In case of , the leaves start falling and the crop looks scorched.

 

Keep the field free from weeds. Plant resistant varieties. Eggs, adults, and juveniles should be hatched. In case of severe infestation, spray with recommended insecticides.

 

سفید مکھی
(White fly)

Almost all vegetables

 

The white fly is very small, the body is yellowish and the white fly is covered with white powder. That is why the color of this insect looks white. The young are flattened ovoid pale yellow with greenish yellow on the leaves. Sticks to the bottom. Both adults and juveniles weaken the plant by sucking sap. In addition to sucking sap, whiteflies also secrete a sweet, milky substance. Black spot causes the affected part of the plant to turn black.

 


• Keep the field free from weeds. Promote the growth of farmer friendly insects like lace wing, lady bird beetle etc. Do not allow excessive drying.

In case of severe infestation, spray with recommended insecticides.

 

 

سرخ جوئیں 
(Red mits)

تمام سبزیات

Lice are a separate group. Insects have six legs while mites have eight legs. They are very small in size and can be seen on leaves only with the help of a convex lens. There are two red spots. Juveniles are also similar in appearance to mites. At the beginning of the attack, the leaves start to develop pale green to whitish yellow spots and fall off. In severe attack the entire leaf is covered with white silk web. Due to sucking the sap, the leaves turn from the edges and their green color turns yellow and later brown. The plant looks similar to wilting symptoms when seen from a distance. All the leaves of the plant are covered with mites get engulfed and production is severely affected

۔

  Its attack occurs in hot and dry weather. If adequate irrigation is provided, its attack is reduced.

In case of severe infestation, spray with recommended insecticides.

 

 

 

 (Brinjal Stem & Fruit Borer)

Its aphids cause the most damage to the shoots and fruit. They enter the stem and fruit and feed from the inside. This pest also attacks nursery and transplanted crops. Infested flowers develop holes filled with aphids. Its plumage is brown and has a water mark near the forewings. The aphids are yellowish white and the head is orange brown in color.

 

  Destroy the weeds.

• Destroy  the insect with light traps.

• Cut off and bury infested fruit and shoots. Dispose of crop residues. Grow farmer-friendly insects.

• Spray recommended insecticides for chemical control.

 

بھنڈی توری کے پھل اورشگوفے کا گڑوواں 
(Okra fruit & shoot borer)

Aphids cause damage by boring holes in the pods, pods and fruit. Infested pods wither and dry up. Infested fruit is deformed and unusable.

 

• Use sex traps to eliminate parasites.

• Crush and bury infested stems and fruits.

• Do not plant okra tori in cotton growing area.

 

امریکن سنڈی


(American Worm)

All vegetables

Its aphids attack buds, flowers, and fruit. They pierce the fruit and enter. When feeding, the aphid keeps its head inside the fruit and the rest of its body outside. American aphids can be of different colors. The color of larvae  is light brown. It is plump and brown in color. while the head of armyworm is thin and black in comparison to the body. When it reaches its full height, it can be yellowish or green in color. Its attack is more in hot humid and rainy season. The female lays eggs on the upper part of the leaves and fruit and most of her eggs are on the soft branches of the plant.

 

  Kill moths by using light traps.

• Destroy eggs and larvae by hand in the early stages of infestation.

• Breed farmer-friendly insects.

• Spray recommended insecticides for chemical control.

 

لیف مائنر 

 
(Leaf Miner)

All vegetables

The attack of this insect is more intense in the case of tunnel cultivation. This insect eats the green material of the leaves by scraping and leaves white streaks on the leaves.

 

   Spray recommended insecticides for control.

 

کدو کی لال بھونڈی


(Red pumpkin beetle)

 

It is a red weevil with a black underbelly. This weevil eats the leaves, stunting plant growth. If the infestation is severe, the plants die.  But the attack of this insect causes serious damage to the crop. Its larvae are present in the cracks of the earth.

 

  Keep fields free from weeds. After the crop is ready, plow deeply to destroy the pupae and grubs in the soil. Kill the adult insects by hand in the morning. Plant the seed with insecticides.

• Spray recommended insecticides for control.

 

 

دیمک
(Termite)

Almost All Vegetables

These insects attack and feed on the roots and underground stems of plants. Attacked plants first wilt and dry up.

 

• Do not use raw dung manure. Flood irrigation of infested fields reduces infestation. Flood recommended insecticides for control.

 

فروٹ کی مکھی
(Fruit Fly)

Generally, it is yellowish in color. Female bees make a small hole in the fruit and lay eggs in it. The hole is closed later. The fruit spoils and becomes unusable

 

Collect the fallen/rotted fruits from the field and bury them in the ground.

• For fruit fly remediation, prepare and spray a protein hydrolyzate poison bait.

• Spray recommended insecticides for chemical control.

 

چور کیڑا Cutworm

  Tomatoes, Potatoes, Peppers, Cabbage Nursery, Okra Tori, Climbing Vegetables, and other vegetables

 

This insect is active from October to May. At night it damages small plants by cutting them close to the ground. It eats less and causes more damage. During the day, the larvae hide in the ground.

۔

Set up light traps to kill moths. Water the fields. Plant where the pods accumulate. Then destroy them. Water at regular intervals to reduce pest infestation. Spray/wash recommended insecticides for control

 

گدھیڑی
(Mealy Bug)

The female has no wings and the male has wings. The color of the female is initially light reddish and when young, a thick layer of white powder settles on it and becomes very sluggish. The male is only reproductive. There are and all the damage is done only by the young ones and the female mealy-bug. The female carries a bag with it, which contains up to 200 eggs. In which the young hatch out within ten days, and sometimes the female directly gives birth. Juveniles are very agile and can quickly climb vegetable plants. This insect attacks in the form of larvae. It sucks the sap from tender branches of vegetables.

 

  • Remove infected plants from the field.
  • Spray recommended insecticides for control.  
  • Make weed control a surefire attack.

 

بینگن کا جھالر دار بگ
(Brinjal wing lace bug)

The adults and juveniles of this insect suck the sap from the leaves and inject a toxic substance into the leaves, which causes the leaves to dry up and fall off. Infested plants first turn yellow and later become stunted. Severely infested plants are  gradually lose their leaves and eventually die.

 

• Remove and destroy wilted and infested plants.

• Spray recommended insecticides for control.

 

ہڈا بھونڈی

Eggplant, potato, tomato and other leafy vegetables

 

Both adults and larvae (grubs) scratch the upper surface of the leaves and eat the chlorophyll. Veins of the affected leaves remain and the leaves dry up and fall off. Infested leaves become web-like.

 

• Keep the field free from weeds.

• Plough deep after crop bearing.

• Spray recommended insecticides for control.

 

مولی بگ
(Painted Bug) Okra and tomato etc.

 

Both adults and children suck the sap from the plants. While sucking the sap, they release a toxic substance from their mouths on the plants, which causes the plants to dry out and affect the yield.

۔

  Be sure to kill the weeds. Spray with a poison recommended for radish bug control.

 

پھل کی مکھی
(Fruit Fly)

Usually, the yolk is black in color. Female bees make a small hole in the fruit and lay eggs in it. The hole is closed later. The fruit spoils and becomes unusable.

 

  • Collect fallen/rotted fruits from the field and bury them in the ground.                                                       …Use sex traps.

• Prepare a protein hydrolyzate solution for fruit fly remediation and later spray.

• Spray recommended insecticides for chemical control.

 

 

Weed Control

Anti-herbicide:

Eggplant crops remain in the field more or less throughout the year. Therefore, summer and winter herbs can be grown in it. Among them, it-sit, dela, swanki, madhana, cholai, kulfa, lamb grass, bathu, includes wild spinach, and wild hallo etc. Three weeks before planting nursery, spray pendimethalin at the rate of one and a half liter per acre before sowing and prepare the land after rain. Let the land dry and after 3 weeks, cultivate eggplant nursery All other herbs except Lahli and Della are destroyed. A safer method for the transplanted crop is to water the plants before transplanting and after a day or two spray with Doval Gold 800ml or Pendimethalin 1200ml mixed with 100 liters of water. A week after spraying, water by moving the nursery into the holes with a spade or rake.

Irrigation

Irrigation and Tillage:

Do the second irrigation three to four days after transplanting. Irrigate weekly thereafter. The interval may be extended or shortened depending on the weather. Weed three to four times and cover the stems with soil to prevent the plants from falling due to wind and fruit load.

Fertilizers

Use of fertilizers:

Determine the amount of fertilizer based on a soil laboratory analysis, but follow the recommendations below for average fertile soil.

                                     Amount of Nutrients (per kg)

 

Number

 

Time to use fertilizer

 

 Nitrogen N

 Phosphorous P

Potash K

Amount of fertilizer (bags per acre)

 

1

sowing

36

36

0

4 sacks of single superphosphate and 1 sack of ammonium nitrate

 

2

While laying the soil

 

23

-

-

1 sac of urea

Note: Apply 1 bag of ammonium nitrate or 1/2 bag of urea per acre after every 3 to 4 plantings.

Harvesting

Harvesting  :

When the fruit is ready, it should be harvested every fifth day. The fruit should be broken in soft condition otherwise it will be large in size and whitish in color. Due to this, its price will be lower in the market.

Storages

Crop Calendar

Crop Plan



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