Seasmum is centuries old oil providing crop of Punjab which is sown for very short span of time. Its seeds contain more than 50% of good quality edible oil and almost 22% of best type of proteins. That is why it is the best food for both human beings and animals.


Sesame is an important oilseed crop of kharif. Its seed contains edible oils with more than 50% high quality and a good type of protein of more than 22%. It also has 28 ppm Calcium, 23 ppm iron and 13 nickel. Its oil properties are very much similar to olive oil. That is why it has nutritional importance. After extraction its remaining are best food for cattle and chickens. Sesame oil is also used for pharmaceuticals and making high-type soaps, perfumes, carbon paper. Mixing it with 5 to 10% of other edible oil improves the oil quality. In addition, sesame is also used in fast food and bakery products. Even the sesame nans are very popular for us. Due to these features demand of sesame is increasing and this crop is becoming of profitable cash crop. The area under cultivation of sesame in Punjab in the last five years, total production and production per acre is given in Table No. 1.

Table No. 1: Area under cultivation of sesame seeds, production and average production in the last five years


Area (thousand hectare)

Area (thousand acre)

Yield (thousand tonnes)

Average yield (Kg per Hactare)

Average yield (Mound per acre)





































Reasons for increase in area in 2020-21:

Last year, farmers got better crop compensation and seed subsidy was given by the government, which led to an increase of 22.2% in the area of sesame as compared to last year.

Reason for increase in production in 2020-21:

The increase in area and subsidy given by the government on sesame led to increase in production. Thus, the production of sesame increased by 63% as compared to last year.



Types of Sesame:

Approved varieties of white sesame for general cultivation in Punjab are TH-6, TS-5, Till 18, Niab Pearl and Niab Till 2016 have better productivity. There are some important features are given below.


It is a single branch and a short duration type, and after 30-35 days flowering starts and it becomes ripen in 100 to 110 days.


It is a branched and better resistant to diseases, after 40-45 days flowering starts and it becomes ripen in 120 days.

Till 18:

It is a branched and better resistant to diseases that is cooked and it becomes ripen in 120 days.

Niab Pearl:

It is a branched type that resistant against diseases and protects it from falling due to strong stem. This type is ripened in 100-105 days.

Niab Till 2016:

This type of sesame is also branched. It has resistant against diseases and is protected from crop fall. This type is ripened in 95-100 days.

Seed Rate:

Use healthy and clean 1.5 to 2 kg seeds per acre to cultivate with a drill. To prevent root rot or stem rot, before cultivation, treat seed by applying the fungicide Thiophanate-methyl at 2.5 grams and Imidacloprid by applying 2 grams per kg of seed.


suitable land

Medium and heavy clay loam land with good capacity to absorb water and maintain moisture is suitable for cultivation of sesame. The land that does not absorb water and clayey is not suitable for sesame cultivation. Sandy, water logged and low-lying lands are also not suitable for sesame cultivation.

Land Preparation

Prepare the land well by ploughing and planking 2-3 times. Land levelling by laser land-leveler so that moisture level is maintained in the field and crop growth and development improves.

Sowing Time

In case of early cultivation of sesame, attack of diseases and pests is more and decrease in production due to late sowing and delaying the sowing of subsequent rabbi crops.  The best sowing time for TH-6 is June 1 to 30. Cultivate TS-5 and Till 18 from June 15 to July 15, while Niab Till 2016 and Niab Pearl from June 15 to July 31. In rain fed areas first 15 days of july is suitable for sowing of Till.

Method of Cultivation

After good land preparation and levelling of land sow the crop by single or double row seed drill afternoon when heat intensity decreases. Keep the distance between rows 45 cm (1.5 feet). Keep one hole of drill closed and one open so that required distance of rows are obtained among themselves. Minimize hole size and drill one acre of seed in 6 to 8 kg of sand or fine soil and put it in the seed box. Remember to keep mixing the seed with a rod during cultivation and make sure that the drill chock does not occur. If the drill is not available, mix 2 to 3 kg of sand or fine soil well in the seed and once on one way of field and the other way, so spread seeds at specific distance and mix seed in the field by light planking.

Niab Pearl and Niab Till 2016 are suitable varieties for cultivation in open lines. The spread of plants is high in these species, so keep the distance between the rows 2.5 feet and the distance of between plants 5 to 6 inches. When the crop is about two feet tall, two hoeing at interval of one week and then make ridger through tractor.

Ridge making after broadcast

After broadcast sesame seed in irrigated areas and clayey lands, make ridges with ridger and maintain between tines at 3.5 feet. Tie wood like planker behind ridger so that the top level of soil is smooth and thin layer of soil cover on top of seeds. This reduces the chances of loss of rains and increases production. For this method of cultivation, a machine called a machine Ridger cum seeder has been introduced by various companies which is available in the market.


Sesame diseases and their control





Stem/Root Rot

(Macrophomina phaseolina)

The spores of this fungus grow in the soil and attack on the growth phase of plant. In case of disease the stem of the plant rotten away along with the blackening. The spores of the fungus can be seen on the plant in the form of small black spots.

  • By soil.
  • By crop residues.
  • By seed. 
  • Do not cultivate this crop for the coming year in the affected field and follow the method of crops rotation.
  • Cultivate the seed with fungicide Thiophanate-methyl 2.5 grams
  • Let the crop water stress


(Fusarium Oxysporum)

Initially, the roots of the plant begin to rot. Later the roots wilt down. Eventually the plant dries out. Dehydration also causes these symptoms to appear. But after irrigation the plant begins to grow again. In case of disease, irrigation does not cure it but it dries.  

  • By soil.
  • From the diseased plant residues being buried in the soil.
  • By seed 
  • Cultivate the seed with fungicide Thiophanate-methyl 2.5 grams or Difenoconazole at 1 ml per kg of seed.
  • Don't let the crop stress.
  • Adopt crop rotation.

Collar rot

(Phytophthora megasperma)

The disease is spread more by irrigating diseased plants. The spores of this disease, called zoospores, they swim through the water and attack the plant from the surface of the ground and form a black circle around the stem of the plant. Later these circles get bigger and the plant dries up. This also causes the roots of the plant to begin to rot.

  • By crop residues
  • By weeds.
  • Through irrigation
  • When the disease appears, spray on the base of the stem by dissolving fungicide Metalaxyl + Mancozeb or Fosetyl Aluminium 250 grams per acre of water.
  • Uproot and destroy diseased plants when symptoms of disease appear.
  • Do irrigation in such a way that the water does not touch the stems of the plants directly.
  • Leave the affected areas open by ploughing in the month of May. 



The disease is transmitted from diseased plants to healthy plants by sucking insects. The main symptom of this disease is wrinkling of flowers. The male and female parts of the flower become green and thick like leaves and are unable to bear fruit. Sometimes healthy flowers are seen on diseased plants which later fall without producing fruits.

By Sap sucking insects.

  • This disease is spread through sap sucking insects, so to control these Insects, spray Acetamiprid at 125 ml or Imidacloprid at 200 ml per acre. To control the spread of the disease.
  • Uproot and destroy diseased plants.
  • Do not cultivate sesame before the recommended time.


Sesame harmful insects and their control

Timely control of harmful insects is essential for successful cultivation of sesame seeds. If these insects are not controlled with timely and proper chemical, they cause immense damage to the crop. The identification and control of harmful sesame insects are as follows:





Sesame leaf webber/sesame Capsule Borer

Early stage of larva is white. But later it is green with small black spots, moths are orange brown.

This insect attacks on tillers immediately after emergence of the crop and combines soft leaves. The larva is inside these attached leaves and damages them by eating them. In case of more attack, the leaves dry up and growth stops. Small larvae enter the plant and eat the inside parts of the buds when buds are formed.

  • Spray Lambda-Cyhalothrin 2.5EC at 330 ml per acre.
  • Spray Emamectin benzoate 1.9EC at 200 ml per acre.

White Fly

The body of the insect is yellowish, which is clearly visible on the green leaves, and white powder is found on the body and wings of the adult.

Adults and larvae of this insect suck the sap of the leaves and are found on the lower surface of the leaves. The damage to this insect occurs in two ways. (i) Plants become weak due to sucking sap. (ii) In addition to sucking sap, they also release secretions on the surface of plants, on which the process of photosynthesis is affected due to black fungus. In addition, this insect causes viral diseases to spread on plants. Fly attack is more frequent in dry weather.

  • Acetamiprid 20 SP at 150 g per acre
  • Pyriproxyfen 10.8 EC at 400 ml per acre
  • Spray Buprofezin 25 WP at 600 g per acre.
  • Spray Spirotetramat 240 SC at 125 ml and biopower at 250 ml by mixing.


It is greenish yellow in color and very active. Moves fast from one place to another on slight touch. That's why it's called a Jassid.

Both adults and larvae damage the plant by sucking sap from the leaves. This insect not only causes damage by sucking sap but also injects toxins into the plants. The edges of the affected leaves turn downwards and in case of a severe attack, the leaves dry out and fall.

  • Spray Imidacloprid 20SL, at 200 ml per acre.
  • Spray Nitenpyram 10 AS 200 ml per acre.
  • Spray Dinotefuran 20 SG at 100 g per acre.

Mirid Bug

It is a small insect whose body is oval in shape and greenish-yellow in color, in appearance, it is similar to Jassid. But its legs are slightly longer than those of Jassid.

Adults and larvae of this insect suck sap from leaves, flowers and soft shells. While sucking sap, they release toxins from their mouths. Due to which the leaves and tillers start drying up and the crop starts to look scorched. The attack of this insect is more during the last stage of the crop i.e. flowers and buds, due to which the damage is also likely to be more severe.

Spray when the number of this insect exceeds 6 per plants.

  • Spray Carbosulfan 20 EC at 500 ml per acre.
  • Spray Imidacloprid 200SL at 200 ml per acre

Cotton Mealy Bug

It is a small insect and has oval shape. It has white powder on the body. wingless female and wing male. This insect has been attacking and damaging many plants other than cotton for the last few years. Its attack has also been seen on the sesames.

Both adults and larvae of this insect damage by sucking the sap of the leaves and tillers. It is mostly found on soft twigs. During sap sucking releases toxic substances from mouth, so plants to start drying up. Besides from this, a sweet secretion is also released on which black fungus grows, due to which the process of photosynthesis is affected.

  • Spray Malathion 57 EC at 500 ml per acre.
  • Spray bifenthrin 10 EC  250 ml per acre.
  • Spray Imidacloprid 200 SL at 200 ml per acre.
  • Spray the Profinophos 50 EC 600 ml per acre.


Adults are oblong and yellow in color, adult male are wing, but female wings are long and pointed with long hairs on the hind wings, Larvae are similar to adults in shape and color but are wingless and smaller.

Both adults and larvae damage the plant by sucking sap from the lower surface of the leaves. The leaves of the affected plants become wrinkle and gradually dry out. The surface of the affected leaf is bright.


  • Nitenpyram 10 AS at 200 ml per acre
  • Acephate 70 SP at 500 ml per acre
  • Spinosad 240 SC by 80 ml per acre
  • Spray Dimethoate 40EC at 500 ml per acre.


This insect is light yellow in color, resembling an ant. It is a major problem in Barani and Thar areas. It builds a house in the ground and lives in the form of a family.

This insect attacks the underground stems and roots of plants in more dry weather. The affected plants can be easily uprooted after drying up.

Use Chlorpyrifos 40 EC at 1.5 to 2 liters per acre with irrigation.


Weed Control

Thinning and Filling

When crop shows four leaves than thinning and keep the plant distance 4 inches for TH-6 while 6 inches for TS-5 or Till 18. In case of Niab Pearl and Niab Till 2016 keep the distance of plants 5 to 6 inches.  Before first irrigation one hoeing and second when water is optimized.

Weed Control

For weed control, spray Pendimethalin 400-500ml per 120 liters of water immediately after sowing. In case of rain sometimes pesticide has a slightly adverse effect on the crop but later the plants get healthy and strong. Check weather forecast before sowing, and if rain is expected, keep the amount of pesticide accordingly. Otherwise, Pendimethalin 33% 1200 ml per acre, spray it with first irrigation and mix it with soil and leave the land by ploughing after Wattar. After two weeks again irrigation and cultivate sesame when at wattar condition. Also do one hoeing after one month the use of chemical poisons..


Irrigation depends on the type of land and weather conditions. Usually the crop is ripened by applying 2 to 3 irrigations. the first irrigation is given 15-20 days after seed germination, second irrigation at flowering and third irrigation when buds completed. Apply light irrigation. In case of rain, keep draining excess water from field immediately so that the standing water does not cause crop damage.


Utilization of fertilizers

Use fertilizers based on chemical analysis of the land, So use fertilizer in the average fertile soil according to the following table.

Table No. 2: Fertilizer recommendations for sesame crop

QTY of fertilizer (Bags per Acre)

Nutrients (kg per acre)

After Sowing

At sowing




Half bag urea first and half bag urea with second irrigation

One bag DAP + half bag SOP/MOP or

2.5 bags SSP+(18%), half bag urea + half bag SOP/MOP or

 One bag TSP + half bag urea+ half bag SOP/MOP




Note: Keep the fertilizer content in the rainfed areas 3/4% as compared to irrigation and use the remaining amount of nitrogenic fertilizer in two splits with rain.


Sesame crop is ripened in about 100 to 120 days. When 90 to 95% of leaves are shed and 75% of lower plants beans yellowish So harvest the crops before opening and make small bales stand upright on the already prepared bales. In this way light and wind will pass through them easily and remaining unripened beans will also ripen. Clean and clean it properly while making of bales proper cleaning and dust the recommended pesticides around it to protect against insects. When the beans dry, sweep them. Repeat this process 2 or 3 times periodically so that seed is completely separated. Dry the seeds in the sun for 2 to 3 days and when the moisture level is 8 to 10%, then clean and store.


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