Pulses (Moong & Mash)

Moong and Mash are the important crops of Khareef. They contain almost 20% to 24% protein which is an important element of human diet.

About

Moong and mash are important kharif crops. They contain about 20% to 24% protein, which is an important component of the human diet.

About the Crop

Production Plan Moong and Mash 2022-23

importance:

Pulses are a good source of protein and part of our daily diet. Peanuts are very useful for human health due to digestion and other qualities. Mash dal is important in terms of being a favorite and other nutritional property. Their roots contain bacteria that collect nitrogen from the air and provide it to plants and increase the fertility of the soil. Moong and Mash are the main pulses grown in Bihar and Kharif. Moong and mash can be cultivated in irrigated and rainfed areas. Spring cultivation of pulses plays an important role in those where rabi crops have not been cultivated for some reason. They can also be cultivated in the spring cultivation of sugarcane and in the mandhi crop. Increasing the per acre production of pulses is very important to make food nutritionally better and balanced and to meet the needs of the country.

The area under cultivation, production and mid-production of moong and mash in the last five years in Punjab has been given in Statement No. 1 and 2.

Statement No. 1: Area under moong cultivation in Punjab in the last five years, total production and average production.

year

Area     

Total Production               

 

 

a mid-production

 

thousand hectares               

thousand acres    

thousand tons               

kilograms per hectare

min per acre

2017-2018

148.28

366.40

113.20

764

8.28

2018-2019

150.87

372.80

110.15

730

7.92

2019-2020

147.30

364.00

112.66

761

8.29

2020-21

(Provisional Estimate)

209.70

518.200

192.535

918

9.95

2021-2022

1.70

4.20

0.57

335

3.63

 

Area under moong cultivation, total production and average production in Punjab

 

year    

Area   

Total Production           

 

 

a mid-production

 

thousand hectares           

thousand acres  

thousand tons    

kilograms per hectare           

min per acre

2017-2018

11.15

27.55

3.53

317

3.44

2018-2019

9.99

24.68

3.24

324

3.51

2019-2020

9.33

23.05

3.04

326

3.54

2020-21

first estimate)

4.72

11.669

1.536

325

3.53

(The above data is provided by Director Crop Reporting Service Punjab)

Reasons for increase in moong acreage in 2020-21

  • The area of cotton shifted towards moong.
  • Moong farmers received better compensation last year.
  • Subsidy was provided to the farmers under the government level pulses promotion scheme.

Reasons for decline in mash area in 2020-21

  • Less interest of farmers towards mash crop.
  • The area of mash shifted to other crops.

Seeds

Recommended Types of Moong:

     Recommended varieties of moong are jumbo moong, abbas moong, niab moong 2021, azri moong 2021, PRI moong. 2018, Azri Mong. 2018, Bahawalpur Moong 2017, Nayab Moong. 2016, Nyab Mong. 2011, Azri Moong. 2006 and Chakwal Moong. are 6. The salient features of these types are as follows:

jumbo moong:                 

                Jumbo moong has been approved for general cultivation during the year 2021. It is a coarse-grained variety and has a straight stem. The height of the plant is 60 to 65 cm. This type has excellent immunity against viruses and fungal diseases (Yellow Mosaic Virus & Cercospora Leaf Spot). This variety is equally suitable for cultivation in Bihar and Kharif. Its production capacity is up to 27.50 mounds per acre. This variety is cooked in 80 to 90 days and is very suitable for mechanized cultivation and harvest.

Abbas Mong:

    This type has been named after dr. Ghulam Abbas, a renowned scientist of Niab. Its grain is shiny and its size is medium. This type has more immunity against diseases spread by the virus and cooks and develops in 70 days. This variety is suitable for cultivation all over Punjab. Its production capacity is up to 24 min per acre.

Nyab Mong. 2021:

    This variety is made from the cross of moong and mash and is nutritionally excellent. Its grain is thicker than other varieties of moong. It is also high in protein content. Its production capacity is up to 26 mounds per acre. It has immunity against diseases and cooks in 75 days. This variety is suitable for cultivation all over Punjab.

Azri Moong. 2021:

     It is a coarse-grain variety and its beans are applied to the top of the plant, due to which it can be easily harvested with combine harvesters. Due to its small height, it is very suitable for cultivation in riverine areas. This type is immune to the virus-borne disease in which the leaves turn yellow. Its production capacity is up to 27 min per acre.

Azri Moong. 2018:

     This type of viral disease is resistant to leaf yellowing and leaf twist viruses and brown spots on the leaves. Its plants are medium in height and have hair on legumes that help protect against crop juice sucking insects. Its seed color is green and the size is medium. Its beans are long and black when cooked. Its production capacity is up to 26 min per acre.

PRI Moong. 2018:

    This type of moong is small in height, grains are thick and their color is dark green (mongia). It matures in 60 to 70 days and has immunity against diseases. This type is very suitable for mechanical endurance.

Bahawalpur Moong 2017:

    It is an early variety of moong and its plant is 70 to 80 cm tall. The color of the beans is green and the length is 7.5 to 9 cm. The shape of the grain is round. This type of production capacity is about 25 min per acre. It is ready in 65 to 70 days.

Nyab Mong. 2016:

     It is a coarse-grained variety and has 30 to 40 beans on its plant. Beans can be easily harvested with combine harvesters because they are applied to the top of the plant. It matures in 70 to 75 days. The stem of its plant is straight and the color is vegetable purple. Its beans are long and turn black when cooked. The seeds are long and light green in color. Its production capacity is up to 27 mounds per acre. This type also has immunity against virus-borne diseases in which leaves turn yellow.

Nyab Mong. 2011:

    This variety is famous for its large sized seed. The stem of its plant is straight and the color is vegetable purple. Its beans are long and turn black when cooked. The seeds are oval and light green in color. This variety is cooked in 65 to 75 days and its production capacity is up to 25 min per acre. This type also has immunity against virus-borne diseases in which leaves turn yellow.

Azari Moong. 2006:

    This variety is known for its large size, early ripening, immunity against disease and high yield ability. Its stem is green and the leaf color is dark green. There are 25 to 30 flowers on its plant and the color of the cooked beans is dark brown-like black. It is ready in 80 to 85 days. This variety is suitable for cultivation all over Punjab.

Chakwal Moong. 6:

    This variety of moong has been approved for cultivation in rainfed areas. It has a large number of branches and beans which gives better yield. This variety also has immunity against seed shedding in the ripe crop. Its seed size is large and has immunity against diseases. This variety is capable of producing up to 20 mounds per acre.

Time of Moong Cultivation:

1۔ Spring Cultivation:

      The best time for spring cultivation of moong is February 15 to March 15. However, it can be cultivated till the end of March.

2۔ Kharif Cultivation:

    Kharif cultivation of moong should be done in irrigated areas from April 15 to May 20. If backward sowing is inevitable, cultivate it on sports. Start sowing when monsoon rains start in rainfed areas and complete sowing by July 15.

  Moong Rate Seed:

    The recommended seed rate for sowing with drill is 10 to 12 kg per acre. Increase the amount of 2 to 3 kg per acre in hot areas where the heat is likely to run. Remember that the seeds should be healthy, graded and certified. The value of plants should be 160,000 to 180,000 per acre.

 Availability of moong seeds:

    Punjab Seed Corporation has seeds of various varieties of moong available this year in the following quantities: 

Number Count           

Name Type     

Quantity seed (40 kg) bag  

01

Azeri Maung2006       

169

02

Niab Moong 2011      

31

03

Abbas Mong   

41

04

Niab Moong 2016      

8626

05

Azeri Maung 2018      

7348

 

tomorrow

16215

Approved types of mash:

 Approved varieties of mash rise 2011, NARC mash. 3, Chakwal Mash, Barani Mash and Mash. It's 97. Their characteristics are as follows:

 Rise. 2011:

     This variety of mash is more productive and has a larger seed size. This type is immune to viral diseases i.e. leaf yellowing and leaf irritability. Its production capacity is up to 5 18 mounds per acre. This type is protected from falling due to its short stature. It also has the ability to ripen and prepare in a short time.

NARC Mash:

    The stem of its plant is straight. It is immune to the disease spread by the virus and its production capacity ranges from 10 to 15 min per acre. This type was approved for Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas.

Chakwal Mash:

     This variety of mash is suitable for cultivation in rainfed areas and is famous for its high branches and legumes. This variety with large sized seeds responds well to fertilizers. It is immune to diseases and has a production capacity of up to 16 mounds per acre.

Barani Mash:

    This variety is suitable for cultivation in rainfed areas and has immunity against disease spread by the virus. The size of its grain is medium. This variety also responds well to fertilizers. Its production capacity is up to 17.43 mounds  per acre.

 Mash. 97:

    These types of mash plants have the ability to spread rather than stand upright. Its seed size is medium. It is a long-duration variety and cooks and prepares in about 100 days. Its production capacity is about 13 min per acre.

Mash Rate Seeds:

     Use 8 kg seeds per acre for cultivation in high rainfall areas and 10 kg seeds per acre in other areas for all types of mash except mash 97. While use 5 to 6 kg seed per acre for mash 97-. Remember that the seeds should be healthy, graded and certified. The value of plants should be 160,000 to 180,000 per acre.

 Mash time cultivation:

1۔ Spring Cultivation:

    Sow mash in spring cultivation in the month of March. However, in south Punjab, these cultivation should be completed before March 15.

2۔ Kharif Cultivation:

    The entire month of July is suitable for mash cultivation in irrigated areas. The first week of July is suitable for cultivation in rainfed areas, but it can be cultivated from the end of June to mid-July.

Cultivation

Other Farming Factors Bromong and Mash:

Poisoning seeds:

     Before sowing, sow the seeds of moong and mash according to the recommended fungicide poison according to 2 grams per kg seed.

Geriatric vaccination of seeds:

     By injecting pulses seeds before sowing, the crop grows, increases the ability of plants to get nitrogen and phosphorus, and not only increases the yield significantly, but also the crop cultivated later gets nitrogen. In a land where pulses have not been cultivated for a long time, it is more beneficial if the seed is sterilized.

How to get vaccinated:

     To vaccinate one acre seed, mix 150 grams of sugar, jaggery or sugar in 750 ml of water and sprinkle it on the seed in the form of syrup and mix well with the seed and then dry the seed in a shady place. Do not delay seed sowing after vaccination as the efficacy of the vaccine gradually decreases over time.

    The vaccines can be procured from the Department of Pulses and Biotechnology Ayub Agricultural Research Institute Faisalabad, National Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Center Islamabad.

Suitable Land :

     My land with medium and good level of good drainage is suitable for cultivation of moong and mash while kalrathi and bean-infested land is not suitable.

Preparing the Earth:

     For better preparation of the land, plough once or twice. If there is a previous crop in the field, then run a disk hero or rotavator. Before the monsoon rains in rainfed areas, once the soil-turning plough and twice the ordinary plough should level the ground with laser land leveler.

Method of Cultivation:

     Cultivate moong and mash in rows through preferential drill and keep the distance between the rows one foot. It should be remembered that in the case of kharif cultivation in irrigated areas, keep the distance between the rows one and a half to two feet. If you do not get the drill, cultivate by  pora or kera.  Cultivate these crops on sports in high rainfall areas. According to the experiments of Niab Faisalabad, if the niab varieties of moong are cultivated in lines at a distance of two and a half feet, then better results are obtained.

Pruning:

When four to five leaves of the crop come out before the first watering in irrigated areas and eight to ten days after growing in rainfed areas, then prune so that the distance between the plants is 3 to 4 inches

Diseases

Diseases of moong and mash and their prevention

1۔ Leaf patchy virus (Mungbean Yellow Mosaic virus):

    The virus spreads through the whitefly. This disease is more aggressive on mash than moong. Yellow spots form on the leaves and plants cannot make their food due to lack of green matter (chlorophyll). A severe attack leads to a decrease in production. To prevent this, whitefly should be controlled, sick plants should be removed from the field and destroyed, seeds should be obtained from a healthy field and approved varieties of immunity should be cultivated.

2۔ Urdbean Leaf Crinkle Virus:

    The attack of this virus is more on the mash crop. The leaves of the affected plant become irritated. The height of sick plants remains small and the process of forming pimples in the beans is affected. The virus is also transmitted through seeds to the next crop. In the field, the virus is transmitted from a diseased plant to a healthy plant through a slow aphid. To prevent this, effectively control the slow oil, get the seed from healthy plants and remove the sick plants from the seed fields at the beginning of the growth of the crop.

3۔ Anthracnose :

    The cause of this disease is a fungus called Colletorichum lindemuthianum and Gloeosporium phaseoili.  Irregular brown spots appear on the affected leaves, and as the disease progresses, these spots combine to form large and dark brown spots. As soon as the symptoms of this disease appear, spray the fungicide poison recommended by the Department of Agriculture on the plants.

4۔ Leaf spotted disease (Cercospora leaf spot) 

    The cause of this disease may be one or both fungi called Sarcospora cruenta, Myrothecium roridum. In the event of a disease attack, light brown spots appear on the leaves and small shoots that become larger and dark brown over time. There is often a hole in the center of these spots, which is the special identity of this disease. To prevent this disease, the seeds should be cultivated by applying recommended fungicide poison and as soon as the disease appears, spray the recommended fungicide poison in consultation with the staff of the Agriculture Department.

5۔ Wilt of plants :

    The cause of this disease may be a fungus called Fusarium solani, Verticillium alb-atrum. Diseased plants suddenly wither. This disease appears in the form of locusts in the field and if the same crop is cultivated in this field the next year, it increases. A decrease in the number of plants leads to a decrease in production. Do not cultivate this crop next year in the diseased field for prevention, cultivate the recommended immunity varieties. Apply the recommended fungicide poison to the seed before cultivation.

6۔ Stem and Root rot of stem and roots) :

    The cause of this disease is rhizoctonia solani and macrophomina phoseolina fungi. The stem and roots of diseased plants decompose and the plant dries up. Do not cultivate this crop next year in the diseased field to prevent it. Also cultivate the seeds by applying recommended fungicide poison.

7۔ Stem rot (Collar rot):

    The cause of this disease is a fungus called Phytophthora megasperma. Black spots appear on the bottom of the stems and the stem shrinks slightly from the affected area and eventually the plant withers and dries up. The peel of the roots goes off. The disease also appears in the form of locusts in the field which increases over time. This crop should not be cultivated next year in the diseased field to prevent it. By cultivating the crop on the tracks, disease can be prevented and seeds should be planted by applying fungicide poison recommended by the Department of Agriculture.

 

Pests

Harmful pests of moong and mash and their prevention

1۔ Sap-sucking insects (whitefly, thrips, jassid, aphid, millibug)

     Children and adults suck the juice and weaken the plants. Whiteflies, aphids and milli bugs also release sweet substances from their bodies, which later get black fungus. Due to the stoppage of waste in plants, plants become weak and production decreases. Avoid even the use of chemical poisons so that predatory insects such as ladybird beetles, surfed fly and cry superla are not destroyed. Herbs should be destroyed. Thrips attack when the moong and mash crop blooms. This worm is inside the flower and is usually not visible. This worm is visible by plucking the flower and sweeping it on the palm. Its attack affects the process, flowers fall and beans do not form. In case of a severe attack, spray the recommended poison in consultation with the local staff of the Agriculture Department.

2۔ Termites (Termite):

    This insect attacks the roots of plants. The invaded plants dry up. Termites can also attack from growing to harvesting. Instead of raw manure of cow dung, use rotten and prepared manure. Properly settle herbs and crop residues.  Raining or watering the crop reduces the severe attack slightly. But in fields where pest attacks are frequent and severe, before sowing the crop, apply the recommended poison with water in consultation with the local staff of the Agriculture Department.

3۔ Toka (Grass Hopper) :

    Cuts and eats small plants of the growing crop. For prevention, destroy the weeds on the field, skins and plants. Wash the recommended poison in case the attack is severe.

4۔  (Cut worm) :

     Its caterpillars hide near the plants during the day and cut the stems of small plants at night, due to which the plants are found to be fallen. This damages the crop. For prevention, cut the leftover vegetables and keep them in the form of piles in the evening and destroy the hides hidden under these piles in the morning. Destroy the herbs, apply water by kneading and apply light snares to destroy the flowers. In case the attack is severe, wash the recommended poison in the evening.

5۔ Spinola Bug (Spinola Bug):

    It attacks the moong crop at the very last stage. Cultivate the crop on time to prevent it. The attack of this insect starts in the middle of September, so it is advisable that the moong crop is ripe and ready before it is attacked. Spray the recommended poison in consultation with agricultural extension staff in case the attack starts.

6۔ Pod Borer of Beans :

    The sundae eats soft leaves and destroys the growing plants. It enters the beans by making holes in them and keeps eating the grains. One sundae can damage 30 to 40 fruits. Destroy the animals with sexual and light traps. In case of a severe attack, spray the recommended poison in consultation with the agricultural extension staff.

7۔ (Army worm) :

    In the event of a severe attack, the sundaes, in the form of an army, bend the plants and attack from one field to another. Make trenches around the invaded fields and fill them with water to prevent crawling caterpillars. Wash the recommended poison on trenches and edges of the field. Encourage the feathers that eat the caterpillars. Collect and destroy its eggs. In the beginning, the attack takes place in groups, so control it there so that the attack does not spread all over the field.

Storing pulses:

      Clean and dry the first seed thoroughly so that the moisture content in it does not exceed 10 percent. Clean the warehouse. Spray the recommended poison in consultation with the local staff of the agriculture department in the warehouse. Dip the old sacks in poisoned water and dry them. For more caution, use poisonous gas tablets in the warehouse for 30 to 35 per thousand cubic feet. If possible, store the juice in each metal bag. In this way, it can be preserved for more than a year. These bags are closed in the air and insects do not attack the grain stored in them. Place the sacks in a high place inside the warehouse.

Warehouse bugs :

1۔ Dhora (Dhora Beetle) :

    This insect damages chickpeas, moong, mash, lobia, peas and tur. It grows inside the grain itself and hollows out the grain. One or more caterpillars thrive in a grain There are one or more holes on the invaded grain.  The affected seeds are not fit for sowing and feeding. Use clean warehouses to protect stored grain from pest attack. Dry the commodity before storing them. Put the attacked molasses in the sun. In case of severe attack, wash with poison prescribed by agronomists.

2۔ Khapra Beetle) :

    This worm causes damage to the condition of the child. Its food is wheat, jowar, rice, moong, mash, gram and corn. The affected commodity becomes flour and the peel remains. Dry the commodity thoroughly before storing it, spread the sacks on the attacked bag. In this way, the caterpillars stick to the sacks, which can be easily destroyed.

3۔ Wheat Sauce (Lesser Grain Beetle):

    Both adults and children do harm. The adult does more harm. In both cases, this worm devours the inner parts of the grains and separates the peel. Its food is wheat, rice, maize, moong, mash and jowar. Use clean and insect-free warehouses to store grain.

4۔ Red Flour Beetle:

    Flour, semolina, rice, wheat, corn, jowar, moong and mash and things made from them are its food. Use clean and insect-free warehouses to store grain and wash them with poison sprayed by agronomists. Put the attacked molasses in the sun and dry it.

Weed Control

Moong and Mash:

Herbicides:

    Weeds are the main factor in affecting crop production as they compete with the crop in obtaining air, space, water and nutrients. Since moong and mash are medium-sized crops, the possibility of loss of production due to weeds is high. These herbs include atst, madhana, khabal, swanki, cholai, hazardani, etc.

1۔ Non-Chemical Counter:

     For the eradication of herbs, it is necessary not to leave the field empty after the harvest of the previous crop, but to keep ploughing at appropriate intervals so that the grown herbs are destroyed and their seeds do not fall in the field. Guddi is an effective way to destroy weeds if manpower is available.

2۔ Chemical Countering:

a.  Spray before growing:

    In the case of spring crop, pandimethaline can be sprayed according to one liter per acre immediately after cultivation, while after completing the preparation of land for cultivation in kharif, spray before the last straw and cultivate the crop with the help of drill. If there is a possibility of growing della or tandla in large numbers in the field, then S. metolachlor according to 800 milliliters per acre can be used in the same way. Do not use this poison in case of sowing in the sixth method.

b.  Spray after growing:

     Fumisafin or lactofen can be sprayed with 150 milliliters per acre within 10 to 12 days of sowing or 200 ml 100 liters of water within 18 to 25 days of sowing. 250 milliliters per acre can be sprayed with qizillopp methyl to prevent grass family herbs.

Moong cultivation in paddy area:

     In the paddy area where paddy crop has to be cultivated after wheat, the early ripening varieties of moong i.e. PRI moong. 2018 and Nayab Moong. The wheat can be cultivated immediately after harvesting in 2011. These varieties of moong are ready before the transfer of basmati paddy. Moong crop can also be used as a green fertilizer. In this way, the need for nitrogen fertilizer for the subsequent paddy crop is less and the yield is also better.

Mixed cultivation of moong or mash in sugarcane:

       When the cultivation of the sugarcane crop begins to grow, tarfali or rotavator is usually left out. In this sugarcane crop, mixed cultivation of moong or mash can be done in the month of March. For this, 2 lines of moong or mash can be cultivated between the sugarcane lines on the tracks built at a distance of 4 feet. Fertilizer, water or other factors will be according to the sugarcane crop. Herbicides can be overcome by using the recommended herbicide for herbicide prevention immediately after the cultivation of sugarcane.

Harvest:

     Harvest moong and mash 80 to 90 percent of the beans when cooked. Keep weather forecasts in mind when harvesting and threshing. Harvest in the morning. After harvesting, keep the crop in small piles and dry for a few days and then thresh. Combine harvesters can also be used for endurance. Do not keep the beads and mash grains in the form of piles after threshing.

Irrigation

irrigation:

     The rainy crop of moong and mash requires irrigation three to four times. After three to four weeks of growing the first water, the second water on flowering and then give one water as needed after two weeks to make beans and grains in the beans. In case of lack of water, if only one irrigation is available, then irrigation should be done while making flowers and beans. The moong and mash crops cultivated in kharif usually require three water. Apply the first water three weeks after growing, the second on flowering and the third on the making of beans.

Note:

      Keep weather forecasts in mind while irrigating. Arrange for excess drainage from the field in case of rain.

Fertilizers

Use of Fertilizers (Moong):

Conduct laboratory analysis of soil to determine the required amount of fertilizer for moong and mash crop. In case of non-availability of analysis, follow the following recommendations for the use of chemical fertilizers in moong and mash crop in average fertility land. Use the full amount of the recommended fertilizer with the last plough before sowing.

Statement No. 4

Nitrogen (kg per acre)   

Phosphorus (kg per acre)   

Potash (kg per acre)           

Amount of fertilizer in sacks (per acre)

9

23

12

One Sack DAP + Half Sack SOP    

Harvesting

Storages

Crop Calendar

Crop Plan

Expansion Activities:

1۔ Targets:

    With the approval of the federal government, the provincial government will set a target of area under moong and mash cultivation in each district.

2۔ Publication Production Plan:

    The first step in the expansion activities is the publication of the production plan of moong and mash.

3۔ Strategy:

    Naib Nazim Agriculture (Extension) will formulate an integrated strategy to increase the production of moong and mash in his district and mobilize all his staff to achieve the given targets.

 4۔ Supply of seeds:

    Naib Nazim Agriculture (Extension) will help in supplying moong and mash seeds to farmers in his district. The seeds will be available with the Punjab Seed Corporation and pulses research institutes.

5۔ Fertilizer Supply:

The Department of Agriculture, Government of Punjab will make arrangements that private companies have sufficient stock of fertilizers within the province so that fertilizers for moong and mash and other crops can be easily available to the farmers.

6۔ Supply of agricultural poisons:

    The Department of Agriculture will take care that private companies have sufficient stock of agricultural poisons so that farmers can get agricultural poisons on time.

7۔ Holding refresher courses:

    Refresher courses will be organized at district and tehsil level for the extension staff and farmers of the Agriculture Department. In which agronomists will introduce modern technology about the cultivation of mango and mash.

8۔ Pest Warning and Quality Control:

    Field staff of agriculture department will continue to visit moong and mash fields. Wherever pest attacks are seen beyond the economic limit, farmers will be informed so that it can be prevented.

9۔ Training programs for farmers at village level:

    Necessary training will be provided to the extension staff and farmers regarding moong and mash crops, conditions and area through training programs at the level of Naib Nazim Agriculture Tehsil and Centers. The agricultural problems faced on the spot during the crop will be constantly reviewed and suitable solutions will be found by agricultural workers and delivered to the farmers.



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