Wheat is the prime food source for the people of Pakistan. Pakistan’s land and climate best support the cultivation of wheat that is why it is the most cultivated crop of Pakistan.



Wheat is an important food crop and the staple food of the people of Pakistan like many other countries. There is a need to increase production to meet the national food requirements and make the wheat crop more profitable. Under the Agricultural Emergency Program of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, for the country's agricultural development and the prosperity of the farmers, a national program has been started to increase the production of wheat per acre from 12.5 billion rupees in collaboration with the Punjab government. In which during the year 2019-20 Project activities have been implemented and thus certified and disease free wheat seeds, agricultural implements, machinery, herbicides and micro inputs will be provided to farmers at subsidized rates during the year 2020-21. Apart from this, exhibition plots, seminars and farmers' day will be organized to introduce modern agricultural technology to the farmers, which will increase the production of wheat per acre and the income of farmers. By following all aspects of modern production technology of wheat. The yield per acre of the crop can be increased. Area, total production and average production of wheat in Punjab in the last five years are given in report no.1


Area (Thousand Acres)


Area (Thousand Hectares)


Total Production (Thousands Metric Tons)



Average Yield (Munds per Acre)


Average Yield (Kgs per Ha)






































The above figures are taken from Crop Reporting Services Punjab).

In the year 2020-21, wheat crop was cultivated on 9178 thousand hectares in Pakistan. From which 27293 thousand tons of production was obtained.


Developed varieties and their cultivation time:

The importance of clean, healthy and disease-free seeds of developed varieties is obvious for achieving better and quality crop production.     

The recommended varieties of wheat and their suitable time of cultivation are given in Bulletin No. 2.

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December





Akbar 19

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Ghazi 19

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Bhakkar Star

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Fakhr-e- Bakhar

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Anaaj 2017

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Zinkol 2016

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

N N gandum -1

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Gold 2016

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Johar 2016

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Borlaag  2016

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Ujaala 2016

All irrigated areas of Punjab

1 November to 30 November

Galaxy 2013

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Aaas- 2011

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Millat 2011

All irrigated areas of Punjab. Also suitable for kalrathi and water deficient land



1 November to 10 December

Faisalabad -2008

All Southern Districts of Punjab

1 November to 10 December

Lasaani 2008








Note : * These varieties are affected by rust, sow them on less area.  These varieties are highly affected by rust, sow them on minimum area and do not plan to cultivate them next year.       

Importance of proper timing of cultivation:

The most suitable time for wheat cultivation is November 1 to November 30 to get better production of wheat. According to the research of the Department of Agriculture, the production of crops cultivated after November 30 starts to decrease on a daily basis. We have wheat crop till early January which reduces the production by 50%. Therefore, farmer brothers should try their best to cultivate wheat on time so that both the farmer and the country benefit.



Irrigated and Arid areas

1st to 10th December for sowing till 30th November



40-50 kg per acre

-50 55 kg per acre


The seed germination rate should never be less than 85%. Otherwise, the seed rate should be increased accordingly.




Increasing the seed rate for late-cultivated wheat is necessary because, due to the decrease in temperature, the seed germinates well, the plant makes less buds and the stalks also remain small. will increase which will lead to increase in production. Moreover, this increase in seeding rate will also help in weed control as there will be less opportunity for weeds to thrive due to the higher number of crop plants.


Seed of improved varieties of wheat is available from depots and dealers of Punjab Seed Corporation and other private companies. Take advantage of this facility and use only disease-free certified seeds. This year, Punjab Seed Corporation has 1250802 bags (40 kg per bag) of wheat seeds of various varieties available. Be sure to check the relevant tag of the processed seed.

Poisoning the seed:

Among the various diseases of wheat, Kangyari, Karnal Bunt, Wheat blast and Akheda etc. are the most harmful and cause loss in production. To control them, apply thiophenate methyl at the rate of two and a half grams per kilogram of seed or Amida Clopard + Taboconazol at the rate of 2 ml per kilogram of seed before sowing. It is better to use a rotating drum to poison the seeds, but if this is not available, put the weighted seeds and the recommended poison in a plastic bag, close the mouth of the bag and shake it well by holding it on both sides so that the seeds Let every grain be poisoned. Make sure that the sack is about half full.


Acres measure:

The measurement of acre varies in different regions of Punjab. Most of the acre is 8 kanals but in some places it is 7 kanals and in some places it is also 9 kanals. The recommendations given in this booklet are for 8 kanals acre i.e. 43560 square feet. Farmers are requested to keep in mind the measurement of their field while determining the amount of agricultural inputs, i.e. seeds, fertilizers and agricultural poisons etc.

Land Laveling:

Laveleing of land is very important for getting good yield of wheat. If the land is level, the rain water will be uniform in the whole field and the growth will be uniform and better due to the uniformity of the weather, and the agricultural inputs will also be equally distributed in the whole field. The most important thing is that the wheat crop is given the subsequent irrigation, especially the first irrigation, can be given in the desired and uniform quantity and thus the lack or excess of water will not adversely affect the crop and the growth of the crop will be better and uniform. Therefore, the land allocated for wheat cultivation should be laveled. It is better to use a laser land leveler for this.

Land preparation:

Prepare the land well for sowing wheat crop. This kills the weeds and changes in climate changes the nutrients in the soil into a form available to plants.

  • in heavy and mera land and Level the ground with a laser leveler wherever needed.
  • Divide the fields into smaller sections before sowing so that less water can be applied uniformly and in the required quantity.
  • Plough early in the morning a few days before sowing when water comes after Rauni. By repeating this process two or three times, the weeds will be destroyed and the soil moisture will rise, which will ensure good growth of wheat. This process is very important for the destruction of weeds. It can be easily adopted in cultivation but due to lack of time in late cultivation this method cannot be adopted.    
  • In the flooded area, level the land and plough deeply so that adequate moisture is available. In final preparation plough and fertilize twice only once in light and sandy land.  

Cultivation method:

In the irrigated areas of Punjab, most of the wheat cultivation is done in cotton, paddy, sugar-cane or maize stands and in some areas on varial lands. Along with this, the area located in the rainfed areas is also brought under wheat cultivation, so following are the details of the methods of wheat cultivation after different crops.  

 Cultivation method for irrigated areas:

 Cultivation of wheat followed by cotton, maize and sugar-cane

  • Method of Wittar

Irrigate the field 15 to 20 days before cutting the cotton stalks and corn stalks so that the land is in wet condition while cutting the stalks etc. Immediately after cutting the canes, plow twice and run the rotavator once. If a rotavator is not available, give apply planker. After that do the cultivation by drill, this allows the seed to go evenly and at proper depth and the growth is better.

  • Dry method

After previous crop harvesting, plough twice with conventional plough and once with rotavator or disc harrow. Sow by drilling and irrigate the field. Make sure that the depth of the drilled seed is not more than one inch. This method of cultivation saves time and the germination is also quick because the required amount of water is available to the seeds.

  • The Broad-cast Method

After the last crop yield, do two normal plowings and give heavy planker. Later water the field and then sprinkle the soaked seeds for 4 to 6 hours. This method of cultivation is very suitable for kalrathi soils as the harmful effects of salinity due to standing water are reduced. In hard soils, it is not necessary to soak the seed for wheat cultivation by this method.

  • Cultivation after paddy

Stop watering the paddy crop 15 days before harvesting, so that the soil becomes wet till the harvesting of the crop and wheat can be cultivated without waiting. After harvest, run the Rotavator once or the Disc Hero twice. After that, plough,  and cultivate wheat. Do not set fire to paddy fields and residues after harvesting, it increases environmental pollution. Its smoke has harmful effects on human health and crop residue in the soil. Important nutrients and useful insects and microorganisms are lost by burning, so if a zero tillage drill or Pak Seeder is available, plant wheat crop in Wattar after the harvest of paddy. This will not only save the cost of land preparation but also ensure timely cultivation of the crop. And then cultivate wheat with zero tillage or Pak Seeder drill. Environmental pollution can be reduced by adopting this method of cultivation.

  • Bed Planting

The method of sowing wheat on tracks is also becoming popular. Cultivation of wheat on tracks saves water on the one hand and secondly the crop does not fall and gets better yield. In addition, the wheat cultivated on tracks is rich in mustard, etc. Mixing can also be done easily. Cultivation of wheat on tracks has the following advantages.

  1. 30 to 50% water is saved.
  2. Production increases.
  3. Proper use of fertilizers increases yield.

In Kalrathi soils, the crop is not affected much by the use of saline water.

  1. The roots of the crop go deeper into the ground and being strong, the crop does not fall due to wind or rain.
  2. Does not yellow after heavy rain or first watering and gives better yield than conventional method.

Making ridges after wheat cultivation:

According to the experiences of Department of Agriculture, Department of Research, Adaptive Research and PARC, intercropping with paddy not only saves water, but also increases the yield per acre. This method of cultivation has yielded positive results in all irrigated areas, especially in rice fields and on clay soils, so this method is not very beneficial in sandy soils. Use ten percent more seeds than

Cultivation of wheat in standing cotton:  

The method of wheat cultivation in standing cotton can be adopted for timely cultivation of wheat. Before planting wheat, complete harvesting of cotton and then fill the field with water. If there are ridges also soak them with water. Even double broadcasting of the seed should be done. However, if the ground is hard and the water remains standing for a long time, then there is no need to soak the seed, but after a proper interval, keeping in mind the water in the field, broadcast the dry seed. The seed should be protected from insects. The field in which wheat is to be cultivated must be especially free from weeds. Along with all other recommendations regarding the cultivation of wheat in standing cotton, keep the following points in mind.

  • The seed rate should be 55 to 60 kg per acre. The seed rate can be changed according to the texture of the soil.
  • Recommended Fertilizers Use the cotton stalks after cutting and apply the second batch of nitrogenous fertilizer The best time for wheat cultivation in standing cotton is from November 10 to November 25.
  • with the second water. When applying the fertilizer and watering, take special care that the water goes up to the top of the tracks or the effectiveness of the fertilizer will decrease.
  • In late December or early January i.e. 30 to 40 days after sowing, the cotton canes are cut and the tendrils attached to them are broken.                    

Cut the canes about 2 inches below the soil surface and pull them out of the field immediately

Cultivation method in rainfed areas:

After the first monsoon rains, mold-bold or chisel plough the soil so that the soil is deeply saturated and able to absorb more water. Before planting wheat, plough and fertilize according to the requirement so that the weeds can be destroyed and a layer of rich soil can be formed on the ground and more water can be absorbed and get saved into the top layer of the earth. Cultivate wheat by drill. Apply all the recommended amount of fertilizer at the time of land preparation before sowing. In the experiments of Barani University, it has been revealed that cropping intensity can be increased by fodder, especially sorghum immediately after harvesting wheat in rainfed areas. 

Double- crop farming in rainfed areas:

In the light of various experiences, it has been concluded that another crop can be obtained in Kharif without affecting wheat cultivation in changing weather conditions, the details of which are as follows.

Juntar and millet as green manure:

If jantar and sorghum are planted in June and pressed into the ground from 15th to 20th August (after about 2 months), the fertility of the land will increase and a good yield of wheat will be obtained.

Cultivation of fodder:

In the rainy season, corn, millet and millet crops can be cultivated as fodder at the beginning of the rainy season. If leguminous and non-leguminous fodder is cultivated in the ratio of 70 and 30, more benefits can be obtained.

Mixed cropping of Soyabean and corn:

In the light of experiments, it has been revealed that as soon as the rainy season begins, corn and soybeans can be successfully cultivated in a mixture of 2 and 4 and a good yield of wheat can also be obtained. Thus, with increasing the fertility of the land. Income per acre can also be increased.

Advantages and method of wheat cultivation by drill:

Cultivation of seeds and application of fertilizer by drill allows the fertilizer to fall closer to the plant roots and is more available and effective. Crop growth is uniform and abundant. Most growers drill the seed too deep when drilling. Due to which the seed germinates late and not many buds are formed and the crop remains weak, which reduces the yield. When planting with a drill, adjust the drill so that the seed falls two to two and a half inches deep.

Calibration of drill machine:

Before sowing, it is necessary to check the calibration of the drill machine ie its seeding rate. For this, put the seeds in the seed boxes of the drill. Place a plastic wrap in front of each seed tube. Connect the drill to the tractor and run the drill for some distance. Find the area by multiplying the width of the drill and the distance determined. Divide the weight of the seed obtained from the envelopes by the area, then the seed rate per unit area will be known.


Statement No. 8: Wheat diseases, symptoms and their control

Disease Name

Cause of disease




The cause of this disease is fungus.

There are three types of rust  in Pakistan.

(Yellow Rust)

  1. بھوری کنگی (Brown Leaf Rust)
  2. سیاہ کنگی (Stem Rust)

Rains in winter   help  to spread the disease. Yellow spots are small yellow spots arranged in parallel rows or lines. Brown spots are irregular and scattered rather than circular. They are of large size.

• Cultivate recommended cultivars resistant to all types of rust.

  • Cultivate recommended cultivars resistant to all types of rust.

Plant three or four varieties instead of one variety on a larger area.

• Cultivate the crop in November as it is less attacked by the beetle than late crop.

• Avoid unnecessary irrigation.

گندم کی جدید یا جزوی کانگیاری
کرنال بنٹ
(Karnal Bunt)

The cause of this disease is a fungus (Tilletia indica).

Few buds of the plant are sick in this disease. The remaining few stalks and a few grains from each stalk are susceptible to disease attack. The attack of the disease occurs when the tillers appears.  Part of the seed is affected by the fungus and the remaining part of the starch is preserved

• Cultivate resistant varieties.

• Apply the recommended fungicide to the seed.

گندم کی کھلی کانگیاری
(Loose Smut)

This disease is caused by a type of fungus. whose name is (Ustilago tritici).

This disease appears in the form of black  powdery lesions. This black powder that is seen in the place of seeds in diseased flowers is actually the fruit of the disease-causing fungus. Through the wind, these remains of fungus fall on the budding ears of healthy plants. The disease remains within the grain. Using these seeds as seed next year causes disease


• Keep seeds from a healthy crop.

• In May, June, soak the seeds in water for 4 to 6 hours and dry them well in the sun and save them for the next crop.

• Apply the recommended fungicide to the seed.

گندم کا اکھیڑا
(Foot Rot)

This disease is also caused by the fungus Fusarium sp.


This disease attacks plants twice. The first attack is in vegetative stage and the second is on young plants. The second attack occurs in February to March. At this time, the affected plants do not die, but the ears are either completely devoid of grains or the grains remain small.

• Collect and destroy crop debris.

• Use whole seeds.

• Cultivate resistant varieties.

• Apply the recommended fungicide to the seed.

• Sowing should be done  late where there is risk of disease.

• Watering immediately after sowing in dry land reduces disease.

گندم کی سفوفی پھپھوند (Powdery mildew)

This disease is caused by a type of fungus called Erysiphe graminis.

This disease attacks all above ground parts of wheat. But usually it appears in the form of white spongy spots on the upper surface of the leaves. The affected part of the leaf is brown or dark brown on the other side. If the attack of this disease occurs in the early season, the damage is more. The kernels are twisted and thin and yield is reduced.



• Cultivate approved resistant varieties to combat this disease.


In addition to the above diseases, wheat powdery mildew, leaf blight and leaf blight can also affect the crop.

Generating pure wheat seed:

Farmers should plant healthy seed of recommended varieties of wheat certified by Federal Seed Certification. In case of non-availability of certified seed, we can use pure seed of approved varieties of wheat from our own crop. are For this purpose the following instructions should be followed.

  • Remove non-species plants from the garden.
  • Destroy the weeds.
  • Cut all the fungus affected  plants and put them in a shopping bag  and press them.
  • Use straw or a similar type of wheat straw to tie the bundles.
  • Use agricultural inputs according to departmental recommendations.
  • Plant separate threshing floors of different types.


Statement No. 7: Wheat pests, birds, rats and their control

Note.  Never use agricultural pesticides on wheat crop.



Method of attack/ Damage


کالی چیونٹی
(Black Ant)

It is similar to common ants but larger in size.

At the time of sowing, grains are taken from the fields. From which the desired growth of the crop is not achieved.

• This worm lives by making a house in the ground. Look for its bills and flush them with the appropriate poisons.


It is a small insect. It is yellowish in color and lives in the form of a family by making its tunnel  in the ground.

This insect attacks the roots of crops. Attack is relatively high in rainfed areas. Infected plants turn yellow and die in severe cases. The attack usually occurs in patches

• Use appropriate poison at the time of rooni. If the attack occurs even after the crop has grown, apply the same poison with the same amount of irrigation.

چور کیڑا
(Cut worm)

 Its burrows hide in crevices and crevices      during the day and attack at night.


It attacks the growing crop and cuts the plants from the ground level. It eats less and wastes more by cutting.

Watering can also reduce the attack. Use an appropriate poison spray or poisoned bait.

گندم کا سست تیلہ

It is a small green insect. Whose body is like a pear. Two ducts are visible on the top of the body which secretes a sweet substance. Due to which black mold grows on the leaves. Usually they are found together in one place and if they are disturbed, they move very little.

This insect sucks the sap of leaves, stems and stems of plants. This weakens the plant and stems. In case of severe infestation, the grains are shriveled and the yield is affected. The infestation is highest in mid-February to March. In case of severe infestation, black spots appear on the leaves. This affects the process of making food in the leaves.

• Generally, beneficial insects such as various types of beneficial ladybirds (lady bird beetles), spider mites, surfed flies and parasitic insects do not allow its population to increase. Plant mustard lines in the wheat field to nurture beneficial insects.

• Apply the recommended insecticide before sowing the seed.

• Promote early  cultivation.

• Spray water with high pressure with a power sprayer.

لشکری سنڈی 


The larvae of this insect are usually found on leaves and stems. It has stripes on its body. Because it marches from one field to another in the form of an army, that is why it is called army-worm

This pest sometimes becomes epidemic in some areas. Damages leaves and stalks of wheat.

• Dig trenches around the infested field and leave water in them so that crawling weeds fall into them and die or bury them in the soil.

• Apply suitable insecticides around the infested field to prevent the mites from infesting other fields.

گلابی سنڈی
(Pink Borer)

Its skin is pink in color. This insect spends the winter days in winter in the paddy fields.

This pest mostly attacks the wheat crop in rice areas and cuts the mid-bud. Which gets soaked. It can attack anytime from December to March. Affected tillers do not develop grains and the tillers appears white.

• Discard the stubbles after harvesting the paddy.

• Remove and destroy the affected branches of wheat.

امریکن سنڈی
(Helicoverpa Spp)

The adult moth is brown in color with a black spot on the forewings. The egg is large in size and greenish-brown in color. There are two longitudinal lines on the sides of the egg. The color of the egg is whitish yellow.

It attacks cotton areas. Ants feed on wheat germ in November-December. In March and April, these mites attack the stalks and eat the grains.


• After bearing the cotton, cut the canes and plough deep into the soil to destroy the pupae in the soil.

• Destroy weeds.

• Use light traps to repel moths.

• Use Trichogramma cards to destroy the eggs.


In general, rats cause considerable damage in fields.


Rats damage crops other than wheat. They eat less and cause more damage to the crop. Apart from wheat, they cut down and damage rice, maize, fruit plants, nurseries and vegetable plants. Also, a lot of water is wasted due to their tunnels on skins and ridges


• Mice burrows should be filled with soil or water or the burrows should be removed and the mice killed. They can also be destroyed by using locally available cages and traps.

• Mix one part poison (zinc phosphide) to 20 parts flour and make small pills in a little jaggery and place them in the fields near the rats' burrows. So that when the mice come out, they will eat and die.

• Mix one part poison with 20 parts boiled corn kernels and keep near the tunnels.

• Cover the field with soil by placing one tablet of poison per bull. The poisonous gas from the pellets will kill the rat inside the burrow.

• Note: Be very careful when placing poison pellets or poison pellets in the field so that livestock, pets and wildlife do not ingest them.


(Birds, sharks

and crows etc.)

Crows and sharks pick up seeds during spawning and cause damage.

Sparrows attack crops when they are ripe.


They cause damage by uprooting and eating the green plants. Flocks of sparrows remove the kernels from the ripe crop stalks and discard them.


Those birds should be encouraged who prey the sparrows. Catch them with nets or traps and use them as food. They can also be kept away by banging tin cans. Placing cloth or wax paper flags in fields can keep birds away.

Remediation of aphids. Cultivation of mustard in wheat:

Plant two rows of mustard/canola at a distance of 100 feet in the wheat crop. The late blight attack occurs first on the mustard crop and the beneficial insects also develop first. If so, they migrate to it and control it within a few days by feeding on the late blight. Beneficial insects found on it feed on all types of slugs and successfully control them. Besides, mustard production will also generate additional income. Aphid attack can also be reduced if fertilizers are used proportionately.

Remedies for desert locust:

A desert locust can be easily controlled when it is in the larvae stage, while an adult grasshopper is a bit more difficult to control. The countermeasures are as follows.

Physical Countermeasures:

  • Mark the egg-laying areas and dig up the bags with a shovel and leave them for birds and insects to eat.
  • As soon as the spider eggs are marked in the ground, where the holes are seen, dig two to three feet deep and wide trench around them and bury the young-one in the soil or as recommended by the Department of Agriculture. Wash off the poison.
  • Disperse locust swarms from settling on crops by smoking, beating drums or setting firecrackers.
  • Use the Flame Thrower to throw flames at the swarm of flying locusts.
  • Run a herd of sheep to kill a swarm of desert locusts sitting on the ground.

Biological Countermeasures:

  •  Sparrows and crow prey on desert locusts and help reduce their numbers.
  • Adults of ground and grasshopper beetles are beneficial insects and feed on desert locusts.

Chemical resistance:

  • Report locust swarm attack by numberdar or patwari to local administration or agronomists.
  • Mark swarms of grasshoppers in trees and on the ground after sunset and spray the recommended poison before sunrise the next morning.
  • Mix Carbaryl85 WP with bran or wheat straw at a ratio of 1:25 to prepare a bait and spread it in the army.
  • For chemical control of desert locust, spray the following poisons with knapsack power spray machines and track-mounted machines on trees and crops.

Recommended chemical


LamdasaiHalothrin 2.5 EC

3 ml per liter of water

Deltamethrin 2.5 EC

3 ml per liter of water


10 ml per liter of water


2.5 ml per liter of water 

Weed Control

Weed control:

Cultivation of Kharif crops in rainfed areas increases soil fertility and moisture retention capacity and also helps in controlling weeds, which can increase wheat production.

Weed Eradication:

Weed eradiction is very important for obtaining high and quality wheat production. Weed eradication can be done in the following ways:

Non-chemical control:

  • Crop rotation and after two to three years in the wheat fields, cultivate fodder barseem etc.
  • If possible, double bar harrow should be applied after first irrigation. This eradicates the weeds to a great extent and leaves the moisture in soil for a long time.
  • After the crop has grown, the crop can be weeded by dry hoeing with a Ramba or Kasola.  This process is quite efficient provided the farmer has the manpower.

Chemical Control:

Use of recommended weedicides in consultation with the staff of the Department of Agriculture Extension or Pest Warning and take the following precautions:

  • Use only specific recommended weedicides to eliminate wide and narrow leaf weeds.
  • Use these chemicals carefully in sandy and salt affected areas.
  • Avoid the use of hoeing or bar harrow after spraying chemical.
  • Never use weeds as fodder after spraying.
  • Do not double spray anywhere and do not leave any space empty.
  • Use a specific nozzle (Flat Fan or T.Jet) for standard spray.
  • Do not spray in strong wind, fog or rain. Preferably spray in the sun.
  • Keep the amount of water 100 to 120 liters per acre.
  • Spray always after calibration of the machine.
  • In rice areas where the moisture conserve in soil after the first irrigation, when there is sludge in the field after applying irrigation, herbicide can be broadcast by mixing it with urea fertilizer or sand.

Calibration of spray machine:

Fill the spray machine with water to a certain level and spray it on the crop as if you are spraying chemical. When the water in the machine finishes, find out the area of the sprayed crop. Suppose this area is one-eighth of an acre. So eight tanks of water will be required to spray an acre of crop. To spray on the one-acre area, divide the recommended amount of chemical per acre equally into eight parts and mix one part per tank of water.



Irrigate the cultivated wheat after different crops according to the following procedure.

A. Cultivated wheat after cotton, maize and sugarcane

First irrigation: 20 to 25 days after sowing.

At this stage, there is need for water, and if the water is applied late, the plant forms less and the number of spikes per plant decreases.

Second irrigation: 80 to 90 days after sowing (at the time of Spike formation)

At this time the spike is forming and in the emergence stages. If irrigation is not given or given late at this stage, the spikes remain small and the number of grains in them is reduced and the production decreases.

Third irrigation: The beginning of grain formation i.e. 125 to 130 days after sowing. (Milky stage)

It's time to make and fill the grain in the spike. If water is not given or given late at this stage, the size of the grain remains small and the yield decreases.

B. Cultivated Wheat After Rice:

First irrigation: 35 to 45 days after sowing

Since moisture is high in Rice, the first irrigation should be applied a little late so that the soil remains soft, proper air supply to the roots of the plant continues and the plant can make more roots and blooms.

Second irrigation: 80 to 90 days after sowing (at the time of Spike formation)

Third irrigation: The beginning of grain formation i.e. 125 to 130 days after sowing (Milky state)

C. Irrigation to the late cultivated crop:

First irrigation: at the time of growing branches (25 to 30 days after sowing)

Second irrigation: At the time of Spike formation (70 to 80 days after sowing)

Third irrigation: Initial stage of grain formation (110 to 115 days after sowing) (milky stage)

Important instructions about Irrigation:

  • If the weather is constantly hot and dry, apply one more irrigation as needed between in the interval of second and third irrigation.
  • Keeping in mind the structure of the soil and the weather conditions, the timing of irrigation can be changed.
  • Complete the last irrigation by March 25, so that irrigation can be applied to the late crop till after that.
  • In all areas and in rice areas, especially in wheat fields, make the small plots so that irrigation can be done in adequate amount and the crop is also prosperous along with saving water.
  • More water can be applied to the sandy soil as needed.


Fertilizer recommendations for wheat:

Use recommended fertilizers in the presence of laboratory analysis of the soil to achieve good yield. In determining the exact amount of fertilizers, the basic fertility of the soil, the Salinity of the soil, its type and nature, the amount and condition of available canal or tubewell water, the abundance of different crops cultivated and the previous crop, etc. There are analysis centers in almost all the districts of Punjab from where farmers can get the soil and tubewell water analyses.

In the absence of soil analysis, the recommendations for chemical fertilizers are given in Table 3 and 4. (These recommendations are provided by the Soil Fertility Research Institute, Lahore).

Table No.3: Recommendations of Fertilizers in Irrigated Areas

Nature of Soil Fertility

Nitrogen (kg per acre)

Phosphorus (kg per acre)

Potash (kg per acre)

Amount of fertilizer (in bags) per acre

Poor soil

Organic matter upto 0.86%

Phosphorus upto 7 ppm

Potash upto 80 ppm




2 bags DAP + 2 bags Urea + 1 bag SOP

Average Fertile Soil

Organic matter 0.86% to 1.29%

Phosphorus 7 to 14 ppm

Potash 80 to 180 ppm




1.5 bags DAP + 1.75 Bags Urea + 1 bag SOP

Fertile Soil

Organic matter more than 1.29%

Phosphorus more than 14 ppm

Potash more than 180 ppm




1.25 bag DAP + 1.5 Bag Urea + 1 bag SOP

Table No. 4: Recommendations of Fertilizers in Rainfed Areas

Annual rainfall

Nitrogen (Kg per Acre)

Phosphorus (Kg per Acre)

Potash (Kg per Acre)

Amount of fertilizer (in bags) per acre

Low rainfall area (Annual rainfall upto 350mm)

Rajanpur, Layyah, Dera Ghazi Khan, Muzaffargarh, Bhakkar, Mianwali and rainfed areas of Khushab including Jand, Pindi Ghep




1 bag DAP + 1 bag Urea + 

Half bag SOP

Average rainfall area (Annual rainfall upto 350 to 600ml)

Areas of Chakwal, Talagang and Pind Dadan Khan




1.25 bag DAP + 1.25 Urea + Half bag SOP

Excess rainfall area (Annual rainfall more than 600mm)

Rawalpindi, Attock, Jhelum, Sowah, Narowal, Gujrat, Kharian, and Shakargarh.




1.5 bags DAP + 1.5 bags Urea +

1 bag SOP

Instructions on the use of fertilizers:

  • Use phosphorus and potash fertilizer through band placement drill at the time of sowing.
  • Use nitrogenous fertilizer in 2 or 3 equal splits.
  • Add nitrogen fertilizer in four equal splits in sandy areas because there is a possibility of nitrogenous fertilizer being wasted in such lands.
  • Add half bag of urea per acre keeping in view the condition of the crop in weak lands.
  • In case of late cultivation, add the full amount of fertilizer at the time of cultivation.
  • After the potato crop, add fertilizers according to the fertility of the soil.
  • Use gypsum before monsoon as per chemical analysis in Saline-Sodic soils.
  • If for some reason phosphorus fertilizer cannot be used at the time of cultivation, then use it with first irrigation.
  • Progressive farmers should use 2 bags of DAP per acre.

Table No. 5: Quantity of Nutrients in Various Fertilizers:

Alternative fertilizers can also be used to obtain the recommended amount of nutrient components. For this, help can be taken from the following table.


Weight of bag (KG)

Nutrients (%) Nitrogen N

Nutrients (%) Phosphorus P2O5

Nutrients (%) Potash K2O

Nutrients KG per bag (50 kg) nitrogen

Nutrients KG per bag (50 kg) Phosphorus

Nutrients KG per bag (50 kg) Potash

















Calcium Ammonium Nitrate(CAN)








Single Super Phosphate (SSP 18%)








Single Super Phosphate (SSP 14%)








Triple Super Phosphate (TSP)








Diammonium Phosphate (DAP)








Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)








Potash Sulphate (SOP)








Potassium Chloride (MOP)








Use of zinc and boron in wheat:

Use Zinc sulfate (ZnSO4) 33% at 6 kg for wheat crop and boric acid 17% at 2.50 kg per acre at the time of sowing. If zinc sulfate has been used in the previous crop, do not use it in wheat.

Use of FYM manure and Green manure:

The amount of organic matter in our soils are very low. Therefore, the use of FYM manure and green manure is very important to maintain the basic fertility and physical condition of the soil. Use 8-10 tones well decomposed manure i-e three to four trolleys (per acre) or cultivate guara, jantar or other leguminous crops before the wheat crop and intercorporate it into the soil as green manure when flowering. It should be noted that this process should be done two months before sowing of wheat and repeat it every two to three years.


Harvesting and threshing:

  • Harvest the crop when fully ripe.
  • Laborers, threshers, tractor, trolley, Tarphali or plastic sheets and combine harvesters etc. should be arranged before harvesting for timely management of the crop.
  • During the rain, stop the harvesting of the crop and keep it closed until the weather improves.
  • Tie the sticks slightly smaller and keep the sides of the sticks on the same side.
  • Keep the bundles small and place it in high fields.
  • Make a ditch for drainage of water around the bundles.
  • If the crop is harvested with a combine harvester, make straw husk with the help of a wheat straw chopper as needed.
  • Do not burn crop residue at all.


Storage of wheat:

The following precautions should be taken to prevent wastage while storing the grain.

Threshing: While threshing wheat, care should be taken that the grains do not break because the attack of insects on broken grains is more rapidly.

Moisture: The Moisture content should not exceed 10% when keeping the grain in the warehouses. By pressing the grain under the tooth, if broken by the sound of a crack, the amount of moisture is appropriate. If the humidity is high, dry the grain in the sun.

Filling the grain in bags:

New bags should be used to store the grain. Otherwise, after spraying the old bags well with the recommended chemical solution in consultation with the staff of the Agriculture Department, dry them and fill them with wheat and then store them at warehouses. If possible, use Hermatic bags to store wheat.

Cleaning of warehouses:

If there are any cracks etc. in the warehouses, then soil or cement should be used there and closed well. Then spray proper poison in consultation with the staff of the Agriculture Department. After this process, the warehouses should be closed for at least 48 hours and their doors should be opened. After this, do not enter the warehouses for 4 to 6 hours and clean them thoroughly.


If rats and insects attack the warehouses, use 30 to 35 tablets of aluminum phosphide per thousand cubic feet to control it. If the grain is lying open, airtight it well with a plastic sheet. Fumigation of warehouses twice a year. while storing One grain and the other when humidity increases in the rainy season. During fumigation, the warehouses should be completely closed, otherwise the effect of toxic gas disappears. Keep the warehouse closed for at least seven days. Enter the warehouse 4 to 6 hours after opening. For fumigation, keep poison pills tied in a cloth etc. and later destroy their ashes and do not let it go into the grain.

Protection of grain from rats:

To protect against rats, make suitable poison bait and keep them on the rat passage at night, so they eat them and die.

Rana Javid Cold Storage
Arazi Yaqoob Shah Sahiwal

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