Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) of family Solanaceae is both a vegetable and a spice crop of significant economic value in Pakistan.



Chillies are believed to have originated initially in the West Indies, Brazil, and Peru. But introduced in India in the 17th century is now a spicy vegetable of our country. It contains capsaicin, mineral salts and vitamins A, B and C in large quantities, as well as starch and units of strength. Capsaicin is an element that not only gives flavor to food, but it is also a powerful pain and inflammatory killer. It is an important summer crop in our Punjab province. The area under chilli cultivation in Punjab has declined, which needs to be increased according to the needs of the country.

Table: Total area, Total production and Average production under chilli cultivation in Punjab in the last five years


Area (Hectare)

Area (Acre)

Production (Tons)

Average yield (kg per hectare)

Average yield (maund per acre)































The reason for the increase in area

Getting better compensation for the previous crop.

The reason for the increase in production

Increase in area.


Types of Chillies

Its approved varieties are Gola Peshawari and Tatapuri.

  1. Gola Peshawari

These types of chillies are round, medium in size, dark red, attractive and more bitter. This variety is suitable for cultivation in northern Punjab.

  1. Tatapuri

These types of chillies are hidden inside the leaves. The size of the plant and the fruit is medium, the yield is better and the bitterness is medium. This variety is suitable for south Punjab.

  1. Hybrid types

Hybrid varieties are high-yielding and are selected according to regional weather conditions and uses, such as salads, pickles, or red powders. In addition, farmers should buy hybrid varieties only from recommended seed companies according to regional conditions.


Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan, Bahawalnagar, Okara and Toba Tek Singh districts are suitable for red chilli. Chiniot, Gujranwala, Kasur and Sheikhupura are suitable for green chillies. In some areas in Layyah and Attock districts and Tehsil Talagang of Chakwal where groundwater is suitable for irrigation. Chilli is also cultivated there.

Seed Procurement and Nursery Preparation

The following things are very important to get good and standard seeds for a quality crop. Plants that remain healthy till the end and are also better than other plants in terms of productivity should be kept to get seeds.

  • For seeds, the fruit should be plucked after it is well red and stored in a suitable place after drying.
  • 1 to 1.25 marla nursery is enough for one acre.
  • The seedlings growing area should be higher than the normal field so that excess rainwater can be drained easily.
  • 1.5 months before sowing of seedlings, apply 25-20 kg of well rotten manure and broadcast 250 g Urea per marla and mix it well in the soil and irrigation it. Leave the land after well prepared when the water moisture conserve. After the weeds grow, hoeing again and level the land.
  • Seedlings should be cultivated by making small beds (1.25 to 1.5 meters in size). The surface of these beds should be level so that water and other necessities are equally available to the plant.
  • The depth of seed should not be more than 1 to 1.5 cm and should be less and seed should be cultivated in rows prepared at a distance of 5 to 7 cm and the seed should be sown at a distance of 2 cm. After sowing, cover the seed by applying light soil on the seed.
  • After sowing the seeds, it should be covered with Sarkanda or straw etc. and irrigation should be done with the sprinkler in such a way that the water does not even stand in the beds and moisture is also maintained. If there are burrow of insects near the seedlings, they should be controlled immediately. In addition, to control insects, mix the appropriate chemical in water and sprinkle it on the beds.
  • Seedlings cultivated in the last week of October or the first week of November germinates in 12-10 days. The sarkanda should be removed immediately after germination of the seedlings so that the plants can get full sunlight and improve their health and growth.
  • Remove diseased plants and surplus plants together.
  • Sarkanda should be installed from the north-west side to protect the nursery from frost. If a plastic sheet is available, it should be covered every evening and plastic should be removed at 9:00 am, for this purpose, make 60 cm high thin steel bars bows end and make the shape of a small tunnel and put plastic on it. Burry the plastic edge from the north side into the soil and keep the south edge open so that it can be lifted up while irrigation or doing hoeing etc. Close it by placing bricks etc. on this edge at night.
  • If the disease is seen anywhere in the nursery, irrigation should be stopped immediately and the diseased and withered plants should be uprooted and buried into the pit somewhere, spray the fungicide on the soil around the stem and also spray on the soil where plants are uprooted around.
  • The height of the nursery remains in the soil till 4-5 cm. And then increase the irrigation interval as needed.
  • If the plants are weak, Nitrophos fertilizer should be applied 25 grams per beds (1.25x1.25 m).
  • Regular eradication of weeds and hoeing should be done so that the plants can get the equate nutrient.
  • Irrigation should be stopped a few days before transfer of seedlings to the field so that the seedling becomes hard.

Seed Rate

250 grams of seed is sufficient for an acre nursery.

Transfer of seedlings

the seedlings sown in end October should be transferred to the field from 10 February to 15 February, when the risk of drought is over. Plants should be 10 to 12 cm tall at the time of transplanting. The nursery should be well irrigated 2-3 hours before the plants have to be transferred to the field so that their roots do not break while uprooting the plants. Before transferring to the field, it is very important to dip the plants in a solution of 3 g per liter of water from the fungicide for 10 minutes so that the plants can be protected from early diseases. The distance from plant to plant should be 45 cm.


Climate and Time of Cultivation

Moderate and dry weather is suitable for Chilli production. The best nursery time in the central plains of Punjab is the last week of October or the first week of November. In the southern and some western areas of Punjab, the crop cultivated for green chillies is cultivated in October. This is also good for time non-frost areas. Seedlings in cold mountainous areas are cultivated in March-April. In the dry mountainous areas of Attock, Chakwal and Mianwali, chilli is cultivated in the month of March in onion crop.

Preparation of Land

First run the chisel plough and then run cultivator twice. About 1.5 months before cultivation, well decomposed manure should be applied at the rate 10 to 12 tons per acre and 20 kg of urea should be applied with irrigation. When moisture conserves, plough the land and leave it soft and level. This will eradicate one of the weeds and secondly, due to sunlight, the germs of many diseases will also be eliminated from the soil.

Method of Cultivation

At the time of cultivation, plough the soil twice and it should be thoroughly level because it is very important to level the field. It is very helpful in controlling the attack of diseases (especially dangerous diseases like Chillie wilt, which have been mentioned at the end) and getting good yields. Laser leveler should be used if possible. After applying fertilizer for cultivation, ridges should be made at a distance of 75 cm.


Diseases of chilli and their control




Collar Rot


The cause of this disease is a fungus called Colletotrichum. In case of its attack, the stem of the plant rots very close to the surface of the soil. This is a fungal disease called phytophthora rot. When the plants are on flowers and fruits, the whole plant dries up. Attacks are usually more common in low places.

  • Spray the recommended fungicide by the department on the stem in such a way that the soil around it also got wet.
  • Keep inspecting the plants. Remove the affected plants from the field.
  • Cultivate crop on the ridges so that the water does not touch the plants but seepage.

Anthracnose of Chillies

This disease appears in the form of small dark spots rounded on the early fruit. As these spots spread, they darken from the middle, which are darkened by the presence of fungi. Eventually, the whole fruit turns black. Later, due to other germs, the whole fruit rots.

  • Crop rotation.
  • Eradication of weeds.
  • Spray the fungicide recommended by the department.

Leaf curl virus

This disease is usually caused by moisture from the rain in July-August. The white fly causes its spread. The leaves and fruits remain very small. The leaves also wrinkle later. The flowers fall. The fruit that is made is also small and negligible.


  • Control whiteflies.
  • Uproot the affected plants and bury them in the ground. 


The cause of this disease is Fusarium oxysporum. The first symptom of this is that the leaves first turn pale yellow and wilt. The color of the stem along with root changes. If you cut this part, the color becomes brown or pink.

  • Cultivate disease-free seeds.
  • Rotation of crops.
  • Cultivate seeds by applying fungicide

Damping off

The cause of this disease is a Pythium, and due to the disease, after the seed germinates, either rots in the soil or the plant dies as it sprouts. If the attack is on the plant, the plant starts to rot near the surface of the soil. It is covered with blackish brown spots, due to which the stems rot and the plant falls to the ground and dies up. The fungus survives even after harvesting in the land. Due to which the disease continues to spread next year. This disease appears in two conditions. One before the seed germinates and the other after the seed germinates. Every time the same vegetable is cultivated in the field, the attack of this disease increases. Similarly, deep sowing of seeds also triggers its symptoms. Its attack on the early cultivated crop is also more. 

  • Don't sowing densely.
  • Spray the recommended fungicide by department and destroy the parts affected by the disease.
  • Dip the seedlings in the appropriate fungicide solution for five minutes before transferring it to the field.
  • Adopt proper crop rotation. Do not sow the seed too deeply.
  • Do not keep the height of the ridges high and do not allow water to stand in the field. Make better arrangements for drainage of water in the field.


Use suitable fungicide in consultation with the local extension worker of the Department of Agriculture for chemical control of diseases.

Control from diseases

In order to protect the chilli crop from the collar rot fungal disease Phytophthora capsici, fungicide should be applied 2 to 3 g per kg of seed. At the time of transferring the seedlings, the plants should be dipped in the same chemical solution (2 g of fungicide mixed with 1 liter of water) for 5 to 10 minutes. The crop should be cultivated on the ridges in such a way that the water does not reach the plants directly, but only moisture reaches the plants. The field should be kept extremely level. By cultivating the crop in this way, up to 80 percent of the crop can be saved from disease.


Chilli crop insects and their control





Surface Grass Hopper

This insect attacks the emerging crop. Its body is gray, strong and trigon. In the fields, it is seen flying small and fluttering. 

Adults and larvae cut down and destroy growing plants.


  • When the insect appears, spray the crop with the advice of the agricultural worker.
  • Destroy weeds

White fly

It is very small in size, with brown in color, two eyes and four legs. The body of female is Oval in shape. They suck the sap.

Both adults and larvae suck leaf sap. The affected leaves become a net and due to sucking the sap, the leaves weaken and dry and then fall.

  • Spray safe chemical on the crop with the advice of the agricultural worker.
  • Destroy the weeds.
  • Spraying water or rain automatically reduces the attack.


It is very small in size, with brown in color, two eyes and four legs. The body of female is Oval in shape. They suck the sap.

Both adults and larvae suck leaf sap. The affected leaves become a net and due to sucking the sap, the leaves weaken and dry and then fall.

  • Spray safe chemical on the crop with the advice of the agricultural worker.
  • Destroy the weeds.
  • Spraying water or rain automatically reduces the attack.


The adult insect is blackish green and similar in size like mite. There are two small ducts on the back of the abdomen. Larvae are like adults in appearance but their size is slightly smaller.

Both Larvae and adults suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves and secretes sweet sap, on which the leaves become black due to the black-colored fungi and the process of Photosynthesis in the leaves is badly affected. Affected plants weaken and give very little yield. This insect also spreads viral diseases.

  • Destroy alternative nutritive plants and weeds.
  • Encourage beneficial insects

American Caterpillar

Moth is pale yellow while caterpillar is greenish and longitudinal stripes on the body. The insect also attacks tomatoes, peas and many other vegetables and crops.

Its caterpillar damages the chilli by chewing it, which causes severe damage to the seed crop.

  • Destroy the moths by putting light traps.
  • Spray safe chemical in consultation with local agricultural extension staff if the attack exceeds the economic threshold level.
  • Destroy the weeds.

Weed Control

Chilli Weeds include Itsit, Swanaki, Madhana, Deela, chaulai, Tandla and Lumb etc. In the soil, first run the mould board plough and then run the cultivator twice and leave it open. In this way the weeds can be eliminated on the last preparation of the ground before the transfer of seedlings. The weeds can also be destroyed through hoeing after the transfer of seedlings. Experts of the Department of Agriculture should be consulted for chemical methods.


The first three irrigation should be applied at intervals of seven days and the soil should be earthen up only to the roots of the plants. After this, the water interval can be increased. After about 1.5 months, a bag of ammonium sulphate or half bag of urea should be broadcasted in the ridges and earthen up soil to plants so that the water does not reach the plants directly, but only moisture reaches them. These days, the risk of rain and wind etc. is also high. Therefore, it should not be delayed at earthen up soil. Adequate amount of nitrogen fertilizer should be applied after every 2nd picking. Irrigation should be given while formation of fruits. At this time, there should be no water delayed otherwise the process of fruit formation will be affected.

Note: If a plant is attacked by disease, it should be uprooted and buried in a pit etc. from where this plant is uprooted, clean soil should also be added so that the disease does not spread.


Use of fertilizers

The use of fertilizers for chillies are given in the following table.

Nitrogen (Kg per acre)

Phosphorus (Kg per acre)

Potash (Kg per acre)

At the time of sowing/seedling transfer (in bags)

After One month (in bags)

At Flowering (in bags)




1 bag SOP + 1 bag DAP + 1 bag ammonium nitrate or

1 bag SOP + 1 bag TSP + 1.5 bags ammonium nitrate or

1 bag SOP + 2.5 bags SSP + 1.5 bags ammonium nitrate or

1 bag SOP+ 2 bags Nitrophos 

1.5 bags Ammonium Sulphate or 0.75 bag Urea  

1.5 bags Ammonium Sulphate or 0.75 bag Urea 


Red chilli picking usually takes place in the end of May or start of June and the second picking in July. The chilli should be well ripened at the time of picking and its color should also be completely red. After the picking of chillies should be scattered uniformly on the dry and clean mat. In case of rain or wind etc., the chillies should be collected and covered with tarpaulin etc.



Fruits should be stored after completely drying, otherwise their color will change during storage due to moisture. Which will also affect its quality and the prices in the market will also not be good.

Crop Calendar

Crop Plan

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