Along with the provision of food, Rice crop also plays a significant role in earning foreign exchange in our country. Pakistan stands at important position among the countries exporting rice.


Production Plan of Rice (2021-22):

Rice is an important food crop. Rice is an important part of people's food in most countries of the world. Born in the central area of Paddy in Punjab. Rice in Pakistan is a favourite food of people which is eaten as different dishes and weddings are an integral part of the list of other events. Rice produced here plays an important role in meeting the country's need as well as earning foreign exchange. Pakistan has an important place in the rice expo     rting countries. Rice crop residues provide raw materials for many industries. Paddy straw is used as fodder for cattle. Rice peel (Husk) is used in paper and cardboard factory as well as fuel. Rice flour is used in making bakery products and sweets and bread is also made from it in some parts of the country. Oil with high quality and unique properties is also extracted from the Rice Bran that descends from the top of the rice. In addition, numerous other items are made from rice.

The details of rice under cultivation, total production and average production per acre in Punjab in the last five years are given in statement No.

Table No. 1: (a) Area thousand hectares (thousand acres)






thousand hectares

thousand acres

thousand hectares

thousand acres

thousand hectares

thousand acres

thousand hectares

thousand acres






































(2nd Estimate)









(b) Production thousand metric tonnes



























(2nd Estimate)





(c) Average production rice kg per hectare (mound per acre)






 Kg per Hactare

 Mound per Acre 

 Kg per Hactare

 Mound per Acre 

 Kg per Hactare

 Mound per Acre 

 Kg per Hactare

 Mound per Acre 






































(2nd Estimate)









Note: The production seen in the above Table 1 (b and c) is rice production. Divide the given quantity of rice at 0.6 to know the production of Rice.

Reason for increase in area and production in 2019-20:

  • Transfer of cotton and sugarcane area to Rice.
  • Production increased due to increase in area.

Direct cultivation of Rice by seed


Traditionally, in our country, the transplanting of Rice seedling is done by Manually. Progressive Farmers are producing Rice well in this way. But over time, due to lack of manpower, cultivation through seedlings is becoming costly and recommended quantity of plants are not achieved. These problems can be overcome by using the method of direct seed sowing. Thus, the plants quantity can be achieved per acre as per recommended. And efficiency of work can also be increased i.e. area can be increased in a less time as compared to traditional method, and in some cases the water can also be saved. After the Rice is harvested, the land becomes ready easily and rabbi crops that come later can be cultivated in time. So main factors in this rice cultivation technology is seed growing and weed control. The farmers should get full awareness of these factors before adopting this method of cultivation.




Approved varieties, seed rate, seedling time cultivation and transplanting

Table No. 2:



Seed rate per kg per acre (Wet Method)

Seed rate per kg per acre (Dry Method)

Seed rate per kg per acre (Raab Method)

Seedling Time of Sowing

Seedling Time of transplanting


Thick Type

Iri 6, KS 282, KSK 133, Niab Ari 9, Niab 2013, KSK 434 and NIBGE GSR 6-

6 to 7

8 to 10

12 to 15

20 may to 7 June

20 June to 7 July


  Basmati type

PK2021 Aromatic Basmati 2020, Super Gold, Super Basmati 2019, Suprabasmati, Basmati 515, Chenab Basmati, Punjab Basmati, PK1121 Aromatic, Niab Basmati 2016 and Noor Basmati

4.5 to 5

6 to 7

10 to 12

7 to 25 June

7 to 25 July


Basmati type

Shaheen Basmati

4.5 to 5

6 to 7

10 to 12

15 to 30 June

15 July to end July


Basmati Type: Kisan Basmati

4.5 to 5

6 to 7

10 to 12

15 to 30 June

10 to 25 July


Non-Basmati Fine Type: PK386

4.5 to 5

6 to 7

10 to 12

7 to 25 June

7 to 25 July


Basmati Hybrid Type: KSK111H

4.5 to 5



7 to 25 June

7 to 25 July


Fat Hybrid type: Recommended hybrid types




20 May to 15 June

25 to 30 days of seedling age


  • The above rate is for seed grown at 80% or higher if the growth is low, increase the seed intake in the same regard.
  • Timely transfer for kissan basmati, age of seedlings should not exceed 25 days.
  • The seed of the newly introduced varieties will be available next year.

Do not cultivate unapproved varieties:

Do not cultivate unapproved and prohibited varieties because their rice quality is poor and their mixing affects the quality of rice and adversely affects the reputation of Pakistani rice along with low price selling in the global market.

Prohibition of advance cultivation:

Under the Punjab Agricultural Pest Ordinance (Punjab Agriculture Pest Ordinance) 1959, rice seedlings or crop cultivation is prohibited before May 20, as stem worms spend winter hibernation in rice crop residues. According to data obtained from light traps, moths of stem worms are mostly appeared at the end of March and early April. If rice seedlings are transplanting during this period, insects lay eggs to start their generation on them. So do not cultivate rice transplanting before May 20.

Correctly determine the amount of agricultural intake:

The various recommendations made in this booklet relating to agricultural intake for per acre i-e 8 kanals. The farmers are requested to keep in mind the measurement of their field to determine the quantity of seeds, fertilizers and agricultural pesticides etc.

To determine seed growth percentage:

The seeds should be clean, healthy and strong. The seed growth rate for local varieties should not be less than 80% while hybrid varieties should not be less than 75%. Take at least 400 seeds from the seed lot to find out the rate of growth and soak them in water for 24 hours then covered with wet cloth and leave them in a shady place for 36 to 48 hours. In the meantime, the seed will the sprout. Now count the sprouted seeds and find out the percentage and find percentage growth of seed accordingly.

Seed Availability:

Use certified seed of approved varieties to get rich rice crop yield. This seed available at Punjab Seed Corporation Centre’s and dealers and registered private companies. In addition, seeds of different varieties of rice can also be obtained from Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku. Punjab Seed Corporation has the following seeds of different varieties of rice available this year.

Table No. 3: Punjab Seed Corporation has details of available seeds of various approved varieties of rice

Basmati Type

Seed rate (40 kg bag)

Thick type

Seed rate (40 kg bag)

Super basmati




PK1121- Aromatic


Niab Ari-9


Kissan basmati




PK-386 (Non-Basmati Fine)




Basmati-  515 




Super Basmati-19




Super Gold-19










Seed treatment:

To protect the rice crop from diseases like blast and brown leaf spot, apply recommended fungicides before planting the seed. If seedlings are to be cultivated in a wet method, take half and twice amount of seed and dissolve the recommended amount of fungicide in it and soak the seed in this solution for 24 hours, then put the seeds out and place it in a shady place and prepare for the broadcast. If seedlings are to be cultivated in a dry method, mix fungicide in seed before two weeks of cultivation.

Produce your own seed:

Pure, healthy and disease-free seed used is essential for getting good yield. Many institutions are working in Punjab to produce certified rice seeds. But still about 40% of the province's requirement is produced. Therefore, in case of non-availability of certified seed, it is better for farmers to produce their own seeds instead of using unpure and unhealthy seeds. Keep in mind the following instructions for this.

  • Destroy plants affected by non-varieties and diseases and pests from seed crop.
  • Preferably seed crop harvest and thresh by manually.
  • Keep the first threshed seed when threshing as it is healthy and thick.
  • If you want to harvesting the seed mechanically, use rice harvester and keep healthy and thick seeds. Do not keep broken, weak and immature seeds at all.
  • Dry the seed thoroughly after cleaning and threshing and have a moisture less than 12% to store.
  • Use jute bags to store seeds.



suitable land:

The crop of rice can be cultivated in all kinds of soil except sandy and can also be cultivated by proper maintenance in Saline and Sodic soil.

Seedling Method:

  1. Wet Method (2) Dry Method (3) Raab Method

1.Wet Method:

A.Seed Preparation:

  • Add recommended fungicides to water more than half once of seed and soak the seed in it for 24 hours. Then spread it on to the floor in a shady place. Then place it in 15-20 kg piles and cover it with wet bags i.e. drown.
  • Stir the seed two or three times a day and sprinkle water on it so that it does not dry. In 36 to 48 hours, the seed will be sprouted.
  • If the home base seed is to be used due to non-availability of certified seed, then before the above stage, add 500 g edible salt into 20-liter water and dissolve it and soak the seed in it. The poor and light seed will come up. Remove it. Wash the seed with water and clean it thoroughly.

B.Land Preparation and Seed broadcast:

  • Plough the land once or twice and irrigation the field
  • Plough the land twice in water and give planking
  • Prepare the field and divide it into small parts of ten marlas.
  • To control weeds, use pre-emergence weedicide as per given procedure
  • Now broadcast sprouted seed.
  • Remember use 1 kg seeds of ari variety and 500 to 750 grams basmati seeds per Marla.
  • At the time of broadcasting 1 to 1 ½ inches of water should stand in the field. Broadcast seed in the evening and drain the water from the field the next morning because warm weather and due to hot water there is chance to cause seed rot. Stop this process after a week. Increase the depth of water as the seedlings grow, but it should not exceed three inches.
  • This way the seedlings will be ready in 25 to 30 days. If the seedlings are weak, give urea 250 g or calcium ammonium nitrate at 400 grams per Marla. Broadcast fertilizer about ten days before the seedling transfer.
  • If the area of planting is high, then grow the seedlings at interval of 7 to 10 days so that the age of seedling does not exceed 5 to 25 days at the time of transfer.
  • It is remembered that the age of kissan basmati seedling should not exceed 25 days at time of transfer.

2- Dry Method:

  • This method is for areas where the land belongs to silt and water cannot stand in the field.
  • For this, double plough and planker done after 1st irrigation when the wattar comes.
  • Before adding the seedlings, double plough and add dry seed ari varieties 1.5 kg per marla and basmati varieties 750 g to 1 kg per Marla. Spread an inch-thick layer of FYM, Straw, Husk, parali on it then apply light water, place dry grass etc. at water tap for low down pressure of water and avoid seed flow. Pick up the Straw or parali after a few days so that sunlight can fall on the seedlings. In this way, the seedlings are ready in 35 to 40 days.
  • After 15 days of seed germination, for weeds control spray proper weedicide in consultation with the staff of the Agriculture Department extension department.

3- Raab Method:

  • This method is prevalent in the districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Muzaffargarh where the land is usually hard.
  • After initial preparation, levelling of field and add two inches thick layer of dung or parali and set fire on it in the morning or afternoon - when the ash cools down, mix it in soil with hoeing.
  • Later, Broadcast Ari varieties 2 kg and basmati varieties 1 kg of dry seeds per marla, and apply light irrigation. In this way the seedlings are ready in 35 to 40 days

Removal of weeds in Seedlings:

Weedicides can be used successfully in rice seedlings. After preparing through wet method, spread recommended amount of weedicide in the field with Shaker bottle. Allow water to stand in the field for 36 hours after poisoning. Then remove it and add fresh water. Repeat this process two to three times. Then add 1 to 1 ½ inches of water to the field and broadcast sprouted seed. This will prevent weed more than 90% and will not affect growth of the Seedling. If for some reason this could not be done, use recommended weedicide that have a post-emergence intake effect. Water should not stand in the field at the time of their spray. Do not be predictable when determining the amount of weedicides, because at this time a little mistake or carelessness can cause the growth of seedling to be destroyed or seedling may be completely destroyed. Therefore, use the recommended quantity of weedicide, Use the method as per the instructions written on the label and the recommendations of the Department of Agriculture.

Harmful insects in Seedlings:

  • Destroy the previous rice stem before February 28 in any case.
  • Never cultivate seedlings before May 20.
  • Cutworm of rice sometimes attacks the seedling severely, which sometimes leads to recultivation of seedling. To prevent this, it is necessary to clean the water channels and ridges in field.
  • In February-March, spray recommended poison on ridges of field so that as they hatched die as soon as and can’t reach the seedlings.
  • If the attack of cutworm on the seedling reaches the extent of economic loss (2 cutworm net), spray the recommended pesticides on seedlings and its surrounding. When the attack of stem worms reaches the economic loss limit i.e. 0.5%, add recommended granular pesticide
  • Be careful don’t spray at rice seedlings without examination.

Preparation of field for transfer of seedlings:

Prepare the land by dry method in areas where water does not stand. The major purpose of wet method is to eradicate weed and requirement of irrigation for crop.

  • If once a dry plough, land becomes quicker and better prepared.
  • Stand water for 10 to 15 days before transferring seedlings to the field for better rice quality and good production. In case of water deficiency, stand water for 7 days and in case of severe deficiency for at least three days and prepare the field well by ploughing and planking and shifting of seedling to the next day. Also put recommended amount of fertilizer under the last planking.
  • Once plough with raja cultivator before wet method in the area where heavy clay soil and sufficient water is available. This significantly increases rice production and also has a good impact on rabbi crops later. Do not plough with raja cultivator during cultivation of water logged lands.
  • Do not wet method in water logged lands as it will not leach down salts.

Wet method by Watertight rotavator:

Wet method is traditionally done with the help of plough and planker but use of rotavator for it is also becoming very popular. Farmers are requested to use watertight rotavator for this purpose if possible. This rotavator is designed especially for Wet method. In which additional seals are used to protect bearings and other parts from water. Through this wet method makes much better and rotavator don’t damaged.

Transfer of Seedlings:

  • seedlings are ready for transfer in 25-30 days by wet method while seedlings are ready for transfer in 35 to 40 days dry method. If age of seedling is less than 25 days at the time of transplanting, the plants cannot bear heat and die because they are soft, and if age of seedling is more than 40 days, their branches will be reduced. Irrigation in the field 1 or 2 days before it is uprooting so that land becomes soft and plants do not break down while uprooting. Transfer of seedling should be done in 1.5 inches deep water.
  • Place the depth of water 1 ½ inches in the first week then slowly increase it to 3 inches but do not exceed it otherwise the plants will make less branches and the production will be reduced.
  • Destroy blast, Bakaini or worm infected plants while uprooting the seedling.
  • Keep the plant distance 9 inches and transfer 2 plants in each hole. Thus, the number of holes per acre will be about 80,000 and the number of plants will be 160,000.
  • If there are some missing ones, complete them for 10 days after transfer.

Necessary actions for rice cultivation in waterlogged lands:

  • Cultivate resistant varieties against waterlogged such as Niab Iri 9, KS 282, KSK 133, PK 386, Niab 2013 and Shaheen Basmati.
  • Prepare seedling on waterlogged free land.
  • The age of seedling should be 35 to 45 days at the time of transfer.
  • prepare field by deep plough in which seedling is transferred, but do not wet method at all so that the salts can be washed by applying water.
  • stand water in the field for 7 to 10 days before transferring the seedling. The growth of rice is affected within ten days after the transfer of seedling due to excess of salt. The solution is change water in the field. The crop starts getting affected within 20 days due to excess of black salt. Using sulphuric acid in such lands on the basis of soil analysis restores crop growth.

Direct cultivation of rice by seed:

Method of cultivation and other farming factors:

1.Land Preparation:

In this method, good land preparation is very important especially land levelling. so that growth of crop and availability of proper irrigation, in third week of May, twice dry plough and after the land is levelled, irrigation to the field. When wattar comes, prepare the field. It is important to keep in mind in the direct cultivation of rice that the same type of land which was cultivated last year (particular thick type varieties which are cultivated earlier) should be cultivated in large numbers, same type should be cultivated because the fallen seeds of the previous year also grow in large numbers. Such fields should not be directly cultivated in such fields where there is a variety of kalar grass or wild grass (Liptochloa chinensis) etc.

2۔ Suitable Types:

All approved basmati and ari varieties can be cultivated directly except kissan basmati.

3۔ Seed Rate:

Use 8 to 10 kg seeds per acre for basmati and basmati fine varieties while 10 to 12 kg seeds per acre for thick type varieties.  Do apply fungicides before seed cultivation in consultation with the staff of agriculture department extension.

4۔ time:

The best time for thick type varieties is 20th May to 7th June and 7th to 25th June for basmati varieties.

5۔ method of cultivation:

(a): Cultivation in dry land

(i) by drill machine

Sowing with a direct seeded rice drill (DSR) in dry prepared land. The distance between rows should not be 9 inches and seed depth should not exceed 1½ inches. Keep inspecting the seed dropping pipes during sowing so that it is not blocked due to soil.  After completing each cycle, lift the drill machine up and rotate its side wheel and check that seed is falling to the ground out of all pipes. If any hole is closed, open it with the help of a thin stick. If any hole is left in the field without seed, drop the seed by hand and cover it with a light layer of soil. phosphorus and potash recommended amount of fertilizers can be added at the time of sowing by drill. After sowing, make small beds in the field and apply light irrigation.

(ii) by broadcast

DSR drill is not available, can also be cultivated directly by broadcast. After preparing dry land for this, light plough north south and make sure that tine does not deep more than 1 inch in the ground. Double seed broadcast and planking in the same side. Also add recommended amount of phosphorus and potash fertilizer at the time of sowing and during the preparation of the land. After sowing, make small beds in the field and apply light irrigation.

(b) Cultivation in Wattar Land

If cultivation in wattar condition, then sowing by DSR drill as per the above method after the land is prepared. or broadcasting and then planking.  After a few days, when the crop grows, i-e the stems come out of the ground, apply a little irrigation to the field. Then apply heavy irrigation for a month and then apply normal irrigation.

Mechanized cultivation of rice

Rice production per acre in our country is lower than other developed countries. Other reasons are low plant population, use of unbalanced fertilizers and less focus on timely control of diseases and pests. According to the survey, the number of plants in farmer’s fields is 50 to 60 thousand per acre, whereas the number should be 80,000 plants per acre. Workers are not available, and secondly, they do not meet the required number of rice plants۔ In addition to the transfer seedling to a higher area in a short time through rice transplanter, production per acre can also be increased. In order to promote this method of cultivation, it is necessary that farmers are good at using the respective machinery, growing of seedlings, shifting to field and proper preparation of field. To Successful experiments on this method of cultivation have been conducted under adaptive Research Farms and Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku. Under the National Plan to Increase rice Production organized by The Department Of Agriculture Extension and Adaptive Research Farm this year onwards Farmers will be provided with Machinery and Agricultural Intake at concessional rates through draw as well as technical training.

Benefits of Mechanical Cultivation:

  1. Timely transfer of Seedling
  2. Obtaining the required number of plants
  3. After the transfer, rapid growth of plants
  4. Control of labour shortages
  5. Decrease in production costs 
  6. Increase in production per acre and improvement in quality of grain

Factors necessary for mechanical cultivation:

  • Levelling of land by laser leveler
  • Preparation of seedling in plastic tray or on plastic sheet
  • Low water content while planting seedling
  • operator should be full trained for preparation and transfer of seedling by machine.

Grow seedlings in plastic trays:

  • For one acre 100 to 120 trays of rice nursery requires. For which seed will be 8-10 kg per acre.
  • Always use certified, disease-free seeds. Cultivate the seed by treated recommended fungicides.
  • The land is levelled and the surface of land should not be too soft so that the seeding machine can move easily.
  • The soil for the tray should be fertile (Sweet Soil or Sandy) and does not contain stones or pebbels etc. Strain the soil with 5mm holes.
  • After filling, place the tray in aligned. Approximately 100 trays can be placed in a Marla. Then apply water, but water should not rise over the trays, and they may not be dried. Water can also be kept standing when the seedlings are tall.
  • If the seedlings look small in height or weak, 1 to 1½ kilograms of urea fertilizer per 100 trays a week or ten days after sowing.
  • Use recommended pesticides in case of pest attack etc.
  • 25-30 days after sowing, seedling is able to transfer. About 12 hours before the transfer of seedling, remove the trays from the water and place them in a dry place and let them dry a little so that the machine's functioning is not affected if there is more wet soil on the roots of the seedlings.

Transfer of seedling via Rice Transplanter:

  • Give oil and grease etc. to each part of the machine before starting the transfer of the seedling.
  • Do not work on machine by force and take special care of engine oil.
  • Preparation of land well before 2 days for the transfer of the seedling. At the time of transfer of seedling water should be maintain at 1 inch in field.
  • The thickness of the soil layer in the roots of the seedlings is better by up to two centimeters at the time of transfer.
  • If the machine left gap during the transfer of seedling, check it thoroughly and correct it and fill the gaps by worker.
  • Mechanical cultivation Should keep the crop’s other requirements such as fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation accordance with the recommendations of the common crop.
  • Maintain the distance of the lines by machine by 12 inches while the distance between the plants is 6 inches. However, the transplanter has the facility to reduce or increase distance from plant to plant.
  •  Do not transplant plants more than 1.5 inches deep so that they can grow branches well.


Rice diseases and their control:

Leaf brown spot, Bacterial blight, Rice blast , Bakaini and stem rot are attack on rice crop, whose symptoms and methods of control are as follows.

Leaf brown spot:

This disease is caused by a bipolaris oryzae and attacks both basmati and thick types. Its attack is more in fields which are deficient in potash. Besides the leaves, the disease also attacks on the grains. Small round or oval lesions appear on the leaves, the edges of which are brown in color and the middle part is beige color. In the case of a severe attack, the number of spots is very high. In case of attack on the grains, slightly round or long blackish-brown lesions appear. In case of attack on the seedlings, it appears to be scorched from a distance.


  • Use disease-free seeds.
  • with advice of the local agricultural extension staff, treated with fungicide 2 grams per kg seed.
  • Use appropriate amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer as well as potash fertilizer.
  • In the case of severe attack, spray Trifloxystrobin + Tebuconazole at 65 grams or Difenoconazole  125 ml or sulfur 800 grams per acre.

Bacterial blight:

The disease is spread by a bacterium (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae) and appears on the crop at the spike formation and starts from the tip and edges of the leaf and grows in length and width and goes down in the healthy parts. The symptoms of the disease on the leaves appear in the form of a white water soak stripe, later the diseased part of the leaf dries up and turns white and the leaf curls upwards. In the beginning, its attack is in the form of patches, which later increase in favorable weather conditions and attack the entire crop. From a distance, the crop appears to be scorched. In diseased plants, grains are rarely formed and production is affected.


  • Do not cultivate unapproved and prohibited varieties at all.
  • Transfer of seedlings on time and use only 25 to 35 days of seedling so that the seedlings do not damaged due to cutting from the top due to being tall. Also, apply water a day before uprooting of seedlings so that the roots do not break.
  • Do not allow the water from the diseased field to go to another field so that the disease cannot be transferred to other fields. The water level in rice fields should not be allowed to exceed 1 to 2 inches.
  • Control rice weeds in timely to break the continuity of life during the disease pathogen and prevent its further spread.
  • Effective timely prevention of rice pests, especially leaf folder.
  • Identify the disease at the initial stage and uproot the diseased plants and some nearby healthy plants.
  • The use of potash boosts resistance against the disease. Add nitrogenous fertilizer in three equal splits i.e. 25 and 50 days after the preparation of the soil and transfer of seedlings respectively.
  • In case of attack, spray copper oxychloride 500g or  copper hydroxide 250g or sulfur 800g per acre.

Rice Blast:

This disease is caused by a fungus (Pyricularia oryzae). its attack is more on basmati varieties - it attacks the leaves, nodes, spike and spikelet. In sandy soils that don't have the capacity to hold water, the attack is severe – the leaves form oval shaped lesions that are pointed on both sides. Its edges are dark brown and their middle part is gray in color. Under favorable conditions, these lesions grow together and dry a large part of the leaf, lost the plant's ability to Photosynthesis. In case of attack on the nodes, there are black lesions around them that completely surround it. The affected node and the upper part of it dry up. In case of attack on spike or spikelet, blackish lesions around it, from which the food cannot reach to grains and the grains are not fully filled. In case of a severe attack, the grain do not form.


  • Do not cultivate diseased seed.
  • The crop should not be cultivated late.
  • After harvesting, destroy the stubble of the affected crop because they contain disease spores.
  • Add nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers in adequate quantities.
  • Don't let the field dry up during formation of spike to two weeks after the spikelet emerges.
  • In the case of severe attack, spray Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole 200 ml or Tebuconazole 65g or Difenoconazole 125ml or sulfur 800g or Validamycin + Difenoconazole 250 g per acre.


This disease is caused by a fungus (Fusarium moniliforme). Infected plants are taller in height, thinner and yellower than healthy plants, brown spots form on the stem and the stem rots from there, the disease is spread by the cultivation of infected seeds and by the presence of the previous year's diseased plant debris in the field. The leaves of the plant severely affected start from the bottom and dry up to the top and the plant dies, the stem rots from the bottom nodes, the roots come out from the upper node from the affected part. Due to disease, the plant grows tall and dies and there are layers of white or pink fungus on it, in which there are millions of disease spores, these spores cause disease in other plants, sometimes some of the infected plant's tillers die and the remaining stems appear spikes. But grains are very rare. A few diseased plants manipulate the entire field which causes disease to spread next year.


  • Cultivate resistant varieties super basmati and shaheen basmati, Iri-6, KS-282-, KSK-133 and NIAB Iri-9 in diseased fields
  • Uproot diseased plants and eradicate them.
  • Do not take seeds from the diseased field.
  • Do not transfer the nursery from field affected by bakaini.
  • Apply the recommended fungicide to the seeds as it is an effective means of controlling bakaini and spraying on the crop.
  • It's not useful.

stem rot:

The cause of this disease is a fungal (Sclerotium oryzae) that attacks both thick and basmati types. Symptoms of this disease appear after spike formation. Sclerotia attaches to the surface of the water with leaf sheath and forms blackish brown lesions. The upper layer rots, later the disease attacks on stem. In this way, the stem rots and the crop falls. In case of severe attack, the grain does not develop spike and looks white. If the stem is intersected from the affected area, there are many small black-colored disease bearing spores inside. Production is affected due to the attack of the disease.


  • Destroy the rice stubbles present in the diseased field so that the spores of the disease present in them are destroyed.
  • Do not keep the standing water in the field on the same level for long period.
  • Do not allow water from the disease affected field to go to another field.
  • Apply wet irrigation 50-55 days after the transfer of the seedling.
  • At the time of preparing the land, the spores of the disease float on the water and depsit in the sides or corners of the field. Collect them from there and destroy them.


Harmful Rice pests and their control:

Most of the pests that attack the rice crop include stem borers, leaf folder, white backed plant hooper and brown plant hopper. Stem borers mostly attack basmati varieties. The leaf folder is equally attack on both Iri and basmati varieties, while white backed plant hooper is usually more aggressive on the Iri varieties. But this insect also attacks basmati varieties in the absence of Iri varieties. In case of severe attack by these insects, the crop is completely destroyed and sometimes it is not even harvestable. Besides these grass hopper damages both rice seedling and the crop. In soils where water does not stand, its attack is more. In addition, black rice hispa also attacks rice. But the black Hispa attack is limited to just a few places. The attack of Army worm is not common, its attack has also been seen in some places. But its attack is quite severe. In case of attack, it is very important to control these harmful insects timely and appropriate method. Life description and control of these insects are given below .

Grass hopper:

6-5 varieties of Grass hopper attacks the rice crop. Its attack is on both seedling and crop but often the attack on seedling is more. Its nymph and adult eat the leaves. Sometimes the seedlings have to be re-cultivated in case of a severe attack. Most varieties of Grass hopper are green in color, but some are also brown and grey in color. Grass hopper lays eggs in the form of bunches on the ground or leaves.  There are 8 to 13 eggs in a bunch. This insect spends the winter in the state of eggs in the field or inside the ground. From these eggs, the nymph live on berseem, sunflower, sugarcane and weeds in the beginning of March, from where these after destruction of sugarcane and fodder, attacks rice seedling.


  • Destroy the weeds grown on the channels and inside the fields and around the ridges so that the insect does not reared.
  • Catch them with nets and destroy them.
  • Do not cultivate rice seedlings near sorghum and maize fields.
  • Clean the water channels and ridges inside and outside the field.
  • For chemical control, use bifenthrin at 250 ml or fipronil at 480 ml per acre.

Stem borer:

Rice crop, especially basmati varieties, are more attacked by stem borers. Yellow and white borers cause more damage while pink borer does less damage. This insect spends the winter inside the rice beds in the Larval Stage. These larvae turn into pupa in late March or early April, from which the moth emerges and threat to the next crop. These larvae enter the stem and eat inside, due to which the middle bloom of the plant dries up, which is called "sok or dead heart". When plants are attacked, the spikes become white, which is called "whitehead". There are no grains in these spikes.

Yellow stem borer:

This whole larva is whitish-yellow. There is a black dotted mark between the front wings of the moth. This insect damages rice seedling and crop in larva condition. The larvae spends the winter hibernation in rice stem in fields.

White stem borer:

The color of moth is shiny and white. There is a bunch of yellow hair on the last part of abdomen of the female. The color of larva is slightly greenish white. Rice seedlings and the attacked branch in the early stages of the crop are called dead heart. In the winter, the larvae spend the winter hibernation in the rice fields.

Pink stem borer:

The color of moth is brown, the body is heavy, the head is wide and covered with thick hair. On the front wings there is a light line in the middle of the length. The larva is pink in color which makes the dead heart in the early stages of the crop. Besides rice, maize, sugarcane, wheat, oats, swank and sarkanda are its host plants. before the rice crop is ripe, the insect spends September-October on sugarcane and fodder. In the early days of winter, after hibernation in the same crops, it shifts to rice. It’s attack in the form of patches.


  • Destroy rice residues by ploughing them by the end of February.
  • Eliminate the surplus rice plants grown in the fields before the month of April so that the plants are not available to lay eggs.
  • Rice seedlings should be cultivated after 2nd May as there are few moths available on these days.
  • While transferring of seedlings, do not plant dry plants but eradicate them.
  • Destroy piles of eggs on the leaves.
  • Destroy the weeds grown in the field and surroundings.
  • Apply light traps at night.
  • For chemical control, use carbofuran or Cartap at 9 kg/acre or Thiamethoxam + Chlorantraniliprole at 4 kg/acre or Chlorantraniliprole  at 4 kg/acre or Cartap + fipronil at 4.5 kg per acre when the economic threshold of insect attack damage is reached.

Leaf Folder:

The wings of the moths are golden/yellowish brown in color and have scattered lines on them. Larvae's head is black in color and body is greenish.  Its larvae eat the green matter of the leaves. Due to which there are gray lines on the leaves. After egg hatching, the larvae stay on the open leaf for a couple of days and later it connects both sides of the leaf with a thread made of its saliva and makes drains like with thread and stays inside it and eats its green matter. In this way, the process of photosynthesis is affected and the process of making food is reduced. It’s attack in patches. The attack is more in a shady place.


  • At the beginning of the attack, when some plants are affected, cut the affected leaves and destroy them.
  • Do not use nitrogenous fertilizers unnecessarily as the deep green color and soft leaf of the crop causes the moths to be attracted.
  • In shady areas, the attack of leaf folder is severe, so do not cultivate rice in fields where the more shade of trees.
  • Light traps are an effective way to destroy these insects, so install light traps in the fields at night.
  • Destroy weeds, especially grass, from fields and ridges.
  • For chemical control, use stem-based chemicals Flubendiamide 50ml Lambda-Cyhalothrin 250 ml per 100 liters of water.

Rice Hispa:

The attack of this insect has been seen in certain places.  This insect attacks the crop within 1.5 (1 ½) to two (2) months of transferring of seedlings. The adult of this insect scratch the leaves from the top and the grubs scratch the leaves from inside and eat the green chlorophyll. Which creates white stripes on the leaves and makes the leaf dry.  In this way, due to low green chlorophyll, the plant cannot make food and it affects the growth of the crop. In case of severe attack, rice fields appear burnt or blast.


  • Cut and destroy the leaves in which the grubs are present.
  • Destroy the adult capturing it by hand or net.
  • Destroy weeds, especially dab and deela.


The white backed plant hooper is very small in size. But the damage does a lot. It sucks sap from the bottom of the plant i.e. stem. When the crop dries up from below, then attacks on the leaves and kernal. This insect damages the crop in both Nymph and adult conditions. Its attack usually starts in the form of patches in the field. Adults and children suck the sap of the leaves and stems of plants. The affected leaves turn yellow and then brown. In case of a severe attack, the plants dry up and turn black and appear to be blast. This type of attack is known as "hopper burn" or "blast of aphid."  In our weather conditions, these insects usually attack the crop in the second week of September. Its attack is relatively high on the thick types of Iri-6 and NAIB Iri-9 respectively.


  • Destroy the weeds grown inside and around the field because aphid grows up on them.
  • Collect from a manual net and destroy the aphid.
  • Light traps are an effective way to destroy these insect moths. Apply light traps at night.
  • Do not keep water standing continuously in the field, in case of attack, give water stress immediate.
  • Do not cultivate rice in shady places.
  • Do not use nitrogen fertilizers unnecessarily.
  • Do not cultivate the plants more than the recommended number.
  • For chemical control, spray carbofuran at 8 to 10 kg per acre or Pymetrozine at 120 grams or Flonicamid at 80 grams or Clothianidin at 200 ml or Nitenpyram + Pymetrozine at 100 grams per acre.

Army worm:

This insect damages the crop in the condition of larvae. The color of the larvae is blackish green and it has light stripes on its body. Four to five generations are born in a year. This insect usually attacks vegetables, fodder, cotton and tobacco etc. and causes severe damage to them and now it has started attacking the rice crop. This insect is enlisted in the group of cutting and chewing insects. larvae cuts and destroy the ripen crop spikes. In case of a severe attack, a layer of rice seeds and grains is laid on the ground and a large part of the production is lost. Since these larvae mostly attacks the ripen crop. Therefore, it is recommended to spray or sprinkle such chemicals on this occasion, whose effect will last for a short period of time.


  • Pluck and destroy the leaves containing eggs and small caterpillars.
  • The crop should be kept clean from alternative plants and weeds.
  • If the worms gain full growth, so avoid spraying and wait for them to pass in pupa.
  • In case of attack in patches, spray only on the affected parts instead of the entire field.
  • If the intensity of attack and there is a possibility that its population will move from the affected field to other nearby fields, so drains should be dug around these fields and filled with water and kerosene should be poured into it.
  • Insects and birds play a very effective role in its control. Encourage birds by cultivating millets etc. near rice fields.
  • If light traps are installed at the beginning of the crop, then its moths can be destroyed to a great extent. Better results can be achieved if light traps are installed collectively in an area.

Protection of seedlings from pests:

The following points should be followed to protect the seedlings from insects.

  1. In any case, destroy the residues of rice crop before February 28.
  2. Do not cultivate seedlings before May 20.
  3. The rice grass hopper sometimes attacks the seedlings severely due to which sometimes the seedlings have to be re-cultivated. To prevent this, it is necessary to clean the channels and ridges.
  4. In February-March, spray recommended chemical on the ridges of fields so that they die as soon as they hatch and do not reach the seedlings.
  5. If the attack of the grass hopper on the seedlings reaches the threshold level (2 grass hopper per net), spray the recommended chemical on the ridges and its surrounding areas. In the case of an attack of stem worms, when the attack reaches the threshold level i.e. 0.5 percent , So put recommended granulated chemical.
  6. It should be noted that do not spray at rice seedlings without inspection.

Precautions for spraying:

  • Spray in the morning or evening.
  • After spraying, burry the chemical bottle deep into the ground.
  • Take precautions to avoid the effects of chemicals.
  • The spray machine should be perfectly fine and not leaking.
  • Wear full clothing and closed shoes when spraying.
  • Use a T-jet nozzle for weeds control and Hollow cane when spraying to control pests.
  • Do not spray the opposite side of the wind and strong wind.
  • Wear goggles on the eyes and a mask on the mouth.
  • Avoid eating or smoking while spraying.
  • Wash the affected part with water if poisoned on the body or in the eyes.
  • God forbid, if the poison has an effect while spraying, stop spraying immediately and come into the open air. Consult the doctor immediately and show label of chemical to doctor.

Safe spraying:

The farmer should avoid unnecessary spraying on the rice crop. Do not use some chemicals whose effects are present in the crop and grain for a long time. If there are effects of chemicals in the grain, then there is no demand for it in the international market. Use recommended safe chemicals when the economic threshold level of insects and diseases comes.

Protection of beneficial pests:

Beneficial insects as predator insects naturally control the enemies of the crop such as dragonfly, dempsal fly, lady bird beetle, Chrysoperla, prayer worm and spider. Therefore, indiscriminate use of chemicals should also be avoided to give a safe environment to these crop-friendly insects.

Pest Scouting & Pest Survey:


Pest scouting is the method of assessing harmful pests in every field and the damage caused by them. The survey process continues throughout the year to estimate the average number of harmful insects and their damage over a wide area. In this way, areas are identified where there is a possibility of further attack. Moreover, the life span of insect is known.

Benefits of Pest Scouting:

  • Prediction of harmful insects
  • Identification of areas affected by harmful pests
  • Identifying weak and sensitive aspects in life span of insects
  • Preparation of timely action plan to prevent harmful pests
  • Choosing the right chemical and time to spray against pests
  • Spraying on only the affected parts of the field
  • Helpful for rearing of beneficial insects
  • Avoid indiscriminate spraying and save on the number, cost and time of spray.

Pest Scouting Methods in Rice Crop:

1۔ Zigzag Method:

This method is commonly used for pest scouting of rice seedlings. According to Figure 1, points of one square foot are taken from one to four different places. which represent the concerned field or plot.

2۔ Diagonal Method:

Start walking from one corner of the field to the other according to the method according to Figure 2. Take the first point at step 14 from the first corner. The point will be one square meter. Take the second point after 25 steps. In this way, the third and fourth points will also be taken after 25, 25 steps. At the end, there will be a distance of 14 steps from the corner.


If the rice crop is in the form of block and the type, age and condition of the crop are the same, then choose one field. Which will be called representative field. Do pest scouting from the selected field in a diagonal method. This method is easy in practice and much better in scientific terms.

Weed Control

Weed Control:

Rice weeds:

Different types of weeds grown in rice crop. In terms of physical appearance, they can be divided into the following three different groups.

1.Grass family weeds:

The weed leaves of this family are thin and pointed. Stem is usually round and jointed. Plants are laid on the surface of the earth but some are also raised above the ground.

The main herbs of this family are:

Bansi Grass (Eragrostis japonica)

Swanki Grass (Echinochloa colona)

Dhedon Grass Echinochloa crusgalli hadan

khabal grass (Cynodon dactylon)

Naro (Paspalum distichum) and Kalar grass or lumb grass (Liptochloa chinensis) etc.

2.The weeds of Deela family:

The weed leaves of this family are pointed, canal-like, tall and shiny. They have three corner stem. There is a long and clear vein between the leaves. Rice crop in Punjab province

Here are the herbs from this group:

Ghowain (Cyperus difformus)

Bhowain (Keparis Area)

Deela (Keperis Rotondas) etc.

3.Broad leaf weeds:

The weed leaves of this family are wide and of different forms. The stem is slightly stiff and the plant is raised and straight above the ground.

The main weeds of this family are:

Kuta Kami (Nymphea stellata)

Mirch Booti (Sphenoclea zeylanica)

chaupati (Marsilea minuta)

Daryai booti (Eclipta prostata) etc.

Weeds Control:

  • Weeds can be controlled through good land preparation. Rice fields Cultivate fodder or green manure crops with a rotation.
  • If there is sufficient amount of water, maintain the water level from 01 to 02 inches for 20-25 days after the transfer of the seedling to the field.
  • Selection of chemicals pesticide for weed control and use it consultation with the agricultural extension worker.
  • Do not allow water to dry from the field for 5 days after spraying of pesticide after seedling is transferred.
  • If weeds grow in the crop for some reason, use recommended post-emergence weedicide within a month of the seedling transfer.

Direct cultivation of Rice through seed:

Weeds control:

The presence of weeds in this method causes more damage and their control is also limited. In the initial stage of crop growth, weeds are more advanced for growth and development. Therefore, for their control more attention is required. The methods of controls are as follows.

  • before sowing twice irrigation, Plough the field in the month of May.
  • If rice is cultivated in a Wetter condition, spray recommended pre-emergence weedicide immediately after sowing.
  • If cultivation in dry land, apply water immediately after cultivation and spray recommended pre-emergence weedicide on next day. Be careful not to stand water in the field while spraying.
  • To destroy the grown weeds, spray recommended post-emergence weedicide after 15-18 days of sowing. Sometimes one spray of poison is enough. If weeds regrow, spray again 40 days after sowing. At the time of spraying, the field should be in a state of wet. Both times after 24 to 36 hours of spray, do apply water to the field and stand water for 4 to 6 days.



Keep the depth of water in the field 1 to 1 ½ inches at the time of transfer of seedlings. If more water is standing, the plants will be uprooted by strong wind. In case of water stress, the plants will die due to heat. Gradually increase the depth of water one week after the transplanting, but do not allow it to exceed 2 inches because in case of greater depth, the branches of the plants will become less. Stand water in the field for 25-20 days after the transfer of the laab (for 15 days in case shortage of water) and then let the field air dry for 5-6 days. Remember that the fields remain wet and not dry, otherwise cracks in the land will become and it will be difficult to stand water in the field.  Then keep applying wet irrigation to the crop, but while applying pesticide, the field must stand 1 ½ to 2 inches of water for 5-6 days. At this stage, the height of the crop will be appropriate, its roots will be deeper, the crop will not fall, the attack of pests and diseases will be reduced and the crop will ripen at the right time. After filling the grain i.e. two weeks before the crop is ripe, stop watering So that there is no difficulty at the time of harvesting because of the wetness of the field.

Remember not to let the crop shortage of water while grains develop in spikes and when filling of grain. In areas where water does not stand in the fields, rice crop especially basmati varieties is more attacked by blast. Do not let the field dry in these areas from grain formation to grain filling, but try to keep the water in the field. Otherwise, the blast attack will be more.

Direct cultivation of rice through seed:

  • Irrigation is dependent on weather, land and method of cultivation. Suitable levelling of land is important in better utilization of water.
  • First irrigation should be applied after 5-7 days of sowing of the crop. After germination, keep on applying irrigation for 30 days. Then apply wattar irrigation
  • At the time of granular pesticide application, water stand in the field for 3 to 4 days while pesticide could affect itself.
  • Do not give the crop water stress at the time of grain formation, otherwise production may be effective.
  • Stop irrigation 15 to 18 days before harvesting.



Fertilizer recommendations for rice crop:

for better results use fertilizers according to the chemical analysis of soil, however, the quantity of fertilizers for the average fertile land is given in the statement.

Table: Fertilizer recommendations for rice crop

Rice Type


Nitrogen (Kg per Acre)

Phosphorus (Kg per Acre)

Potassium (Kg per Acre)

QTY of Fertilizer (in bags) per acre

Thick Type

After wheat




 1.75 Bag DAP+ 2.25 Bag Urea +1.25 Bag SOP

Basmati Type

After wheat




 1.5 Bag DAP +1.75 Bag urea + 1 Bag SOP  

Instructions on consumption of fertilizers:

  • If the previous crop is berseem or legumes, reduce the amount of nitrogen fertilizer by 20%.
  • Alternative fertilizers can also be used with the help of Table No.5 to obtain the quantity of recommended nutrients.
  • If potash fertilizer is not used at the time of sowing, Potassium fertilizer can be used with the second dose of nitrogen fertilizer.
  • Keep the amount of water in the field to a minimum while broadcasting fertilizer. It is better not to have water at all, only mud.
  • Use nitrogen fertilizers as per the instructions given, however, experiments with The Adaptive Research Gujranwala have revealed that in the basmati varieties of rice, if nitrogen fertilizer is used at 7 to 10 days interval in 3 to 4 doses from, the functioning and growth of fertilizer increases and there is no harmful effect on the crop.
  • Keeping in view the condition of the crop, fertility of the soil and the previous crop, the quantity of fertilizer can be decreased or increased.
  • At the time of land preparation apply full amount of phosphorus and potash and 1/3 dose of nitrogen. Add remaining amount of nitrogen fertilizer in two equal doses and complete before 20, August.
  • The lands irrigated with tube wells are more deficient in potash. Spray potash fertilizer in case of severe deficiency.
  • In addition to the recommended fertilizers in the lands, irrigated with (excess sodium) poor water also add five bags of Gypsum per acre.
  •  Use 25% more nitrogen fertilizer in Water logged soils.

Alternative fertilizers can also be used with the help of Statement No.5 to obtain the quantity of recommended nutrients.

Table No. 5: Amount of nutrients in different fertilizers


Bag Weight (Kg)

Nutrients (%)

 Amount of nutrients per Bag (kg)

















Ammonium Nitrate








Calcium Ammonium Nitrate (CAN)








Triple Super Phosphate (TSP)








Single super phosphate (%18)








Single super phosphate (%14)








Diammonium phosphate (DAP)
















Potassium sulphate (SOP)








Potassium Chloride (MOP)








Symptoms of zinc deficiency and the use of zinc sulphate:

Small brown blackish spots appear on the lower leaves of the plant in case of zinc deficiency. Then these spots start appearing on the upper surface of leaves and leaves appear rusty. The growth of the plant stops. If an attempt is made to uproot the plant, it is uprooted without any difficulty as its roots are not growing. In case of a high deficiency, leaf bursts from the middle to the length or the width.

1.Use of zinc sulphate in seedling:

After 2 weeks of sowing of rice nursery, the requirement of crop can be met by using zinc sulphate (33%) at 200 grams or zinc sulphate (27%) at 250 grams or zinc sulphate (21%) at 300 grams per Marla.

2.Dipping of roots of the seedling into the solution of zinc oxide:

Dip the roots of seedlings in 2% solution of zinc oxide before transferring it into the field. For this, if 1 kg of zinc oxide is dissolved in 50 litres of water, it is sufficient for one acre of crop seedlings.

Note: Both the above methods are effective in case of minor deficiencies.

3.Use of zinc sulphate in the crop:

In case of high deficiency, Broadcast zinc sulphate (33%) 6kg or zinc sulphate (27%) 7.5kg or zinc sulphate (21%) 10 kg per acre ten days after transferring of laab.

Use of Boron:

In case of deficiency of boron, the tip of the newly leaves is white and wrapped. In case of severe deficiency, the newly appeared leaves fall, but new one’s tiller remain. If there is a shortage of boron when at the time of spikelet’s, then the grains are not formed. The shortage of boron has been observed in some areas of paddy. Experiments have shown that in case of deficiency of boron, its use leads to increase in rice production and also improves the quality of the grain. For this, at the time of preparation of land boric acid 3kg or borex 10.5% 4.5kg can be used per acre.

Use of green manure:

Our soils have very low in organic matter, it is essential to use organic fertilizers to improve it. According to experiments, Janter as a green manure in the rice area gives better results. For this, immediately after harvesting wheat or rabbi crops, apply water to the field after ploughing the single plough and broadcast janter seed. Soak the seed in water few hours before broadcasting. janter can be broadcasted in Wheat crop while applying last irrigation. The harvesting of wheat crop does not harm the janter. About 15-20 days before the transfer of rice seedlings, when flowering starts in the janter crop then plough and dig it in soil. Keep water standing in the field and prepare the fields few days before transfer of rice and half bag of urea per acre can be used to better decompose the residues of janter.

Recommendations of eat paddy by seed directly for cultivation:

Fertilizer Recommendations:

Proper and proportionate use of fertilizers is very important for good production of rice. In the case of un-adequate use, the roots of the plants do not develop properly, causing the crop to fall and decrease in production. For balanced use of fertilizers.  However, the recommendations of fertilizers in the crop of rice with average fertility are as follows:

Basmati varieties: 34,60 and 25 kg nitrogen, phosphorus and potash i.e. 1½ bag DAP, 2 bag urea and 1 bag S0P per acre respectively.

Thick varieties: 34,71 and 25 kg nitrogen, phosphorus and potash i.e. 1½ bag DAP, 2½ bag urea, and 1 bag SOP per acre respectively.

Use of fertilizers:

Add full dosage of DAP and SOP at sowing time. After completely destroy the weeds add 3/4 bag urea after 30 to 35 days of sowing, then add 1/2 to 3/4 bag urea per acre as needed. Add remaining amount of urea 55-60 days after sowing.

Use of zinc and boron:

  • Apply zinc sulphate (33%) by 6 or zinc sulphate (27%) by 7 or zinc sulphate (21%) 10 kg per acre at 18 to 20 days after sowing.
  • In case of shortage of boron, use boric acid at the time of preparation of land at rate of 3 or borex 20% at rate of 4.5 kg per acre. If the previous crop has been used in the boron, it is not required to be used in rice.


Crop Harvesting:

Proper harvesting is very important to achieve good and quality paddy production. The right time to harvest is when the top of panicle has ripened and from bottom two to three grains are green but full. The moisture ratio in grain is 20 to 22%. If the crop is harvested from combine harvester, preferably cut from rice harvester. If rice harvester is not available, use such combine machine Which has adjustments for rice harvesting so that grain breaks less. Because the common combines are designed for harvesting wheat and the grains break heavily in rice harvesting. Further, keep the combine speed slow and cut the crop relatively high thus the grains will break less. After Harvesting, deliver the production to the market as soon as possible. If you want to store, dry well in the sun (4-6 days) when it has 12-13% moisture than store.

Mechanical harvesting:

Rice harvesting is becoming popular among farmers through combine harvester.  For this purpose, the commonly used machines are mainly construct for wheat harvesting so during harvesting, these machines break grains and some peel them off. These machines sweep green, weak and empty grains as well as cut the green parts of the plant which lead to more moisture and low quality of grains.  Therefore, follow the following instructions in this regard:

  1. Use rice harvester i.e. kabota etc. to harvest rice crop.
  2. Use certain attachments with wheat harvesting machines to harvesting rice.
  3. Before hiring the machine, make sure that the operator is trained and has the ability to Adjust the machine to the crop.
  4. The speed of the machine should not exceed the prescribed limit during crop harvesting.
  5. Keep the machine speed low when harvesting a fallen or tall crop.
  6. When harvesting of rice by combine, make sure that the gear of the machine is in accordance with threshing drum and fan speed machine with the instruction provided.
  7. During harvesting, periodically inspect and determine peeling and broken of grains so that the machine can be adjusted in time.
  8. During harvesting, put a sheet or cloth behind the machine and console from time to time that rice grains are not going into the rice straw.
  9. If rice harvesting is delayed for some reason and the moisture level in the grains is less than 18%, avoid mechanical harvesting because breakdown of grain will be very high.
  10. After harvesting of one variety, clean the machine completely so that there is no mixing of different types and rice quality is not affected.

Rice Straw Chopper:

When rice is harvested with combine harvester, a large quantity of rice straw is left scattered in the field. Farmers burn rice straw before preparing the land for the next crop after harvesting of rice. This burns organic matter on the upper surface of the earth and the smoke from the fire not only leads to increase in air pollution but also causes smog. Therefore, the government has banned burning of crop residues, which is causing major difficulties in the disposal of farmers, straw and stem.  Rice straw chopper is also available for harvesting and crop residue as well as the weeds in the field are destroyed. This significantly increases the amount of organic matter, fertility and production in the soil.


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