There is 25% protein in lentil. That’s why it is considered very important with regard of food.


Lentil crop was cultivated on about 2,000 acres of land in Punjab last year. Lentils contain up to 25% protein. Therefore, it has a lot of importance in terms of nutrition. Last year, Lentil crop was cultivated mostly in the districts of Gujrat, Jhelum, Attock, Mianwali, Chakwal, Rawalpindi, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Bhakkar and Narowal. Untimely and excessive rains and abundance of weeds cause a lot of damage to this crop, besides not adopting approved varieties and production factors, it is not getting the desired yield. The Punjab government is trying to use all possible resources to increase the production of Lentil. Farmers can increase the production per acre of Lentil by implementing the latest production technology of Lentil and help the government to increase their income as well as reduce the cost of its import.



Total Production

Average Yield


thousand hactare

thousand Acre

Thousand metric tonnes

kg per Hactare

 Maund (37.324 kg)per Acre

 Maund (40 kg)per Acre





























2020-21 (1st estimation)







 In the given below, the area under cultivation of Lentil in Punjab in the last five years, total production and average production has been given. 

Reasons for area decline during 2020-21

  • Less interest of farmers towards lentil crop.                
  • The area of lentil shifted to other crops such as wheat and potato.

Reason for decline in production during 2020-21

Last year, the production per acre of masoor increased, but due to the decrease in our area, the total production decreased.


Recommended varieties of lentils:

Punjab Masoor 2020:

            This variety has been developed with the joint efforts of Research Institute for Pulses, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad and Atomic Institute of Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad. This variety of lentil has more productivity. Besides this, it has better resistance against all diseases affecting lentils. It ripens relatively early as compared to other varieties. This variety is protected from lodging and suitable for intercropping in september cultivated sugarcane.

Punjab Masoor 2019:

            This variety of lentil has a better productivity as well as rich in protein.

Punjab Masoor 2009:

            This type of lentil has better resistance against diseases and is more productive. This variety is protected from lodging, tolerates cold and is also suitable for intercropping cultivation of sugarcane in September.

Markaz 2009:

            Markaz 2009 is the type with higher yields, less lodging and better resistance against diseases. This variety can be successfully cultivated in all the rain fed, irrigated, plain areas and hilly areas of Punjab.

NIAB Masoor 2002:

            It is a developed variety with good productivity. It takes 20 to 25 days early to ripen from other varieties and is more suitable for all areas, especially cotton growing areas. The NIAB Masoor 2002 grain is similar to the indigenous crop which buyers and eaters prefer.

Chakwal Masoor:

 Chakwal Masoor seeds, which have better resistance against diseases, also have the same color as indigenous varieties. This variety has better yields.

Seed Rate:

            It is important to have the recommended number of plants to get better yields. To obtain the proper number of plants, use 10 to 12 kg seed per acre with 90% germination of the recommended varieties. Keep 14 to 16 kg per acre of seeds in rain fed areas.

Seed treatment:

To protect the crop from diseases, it is necessary to apply systemic poison to seed, therefore with the advice of agricultural extension staff, apply fungicide to the seed before cultivation.

Rhizobial seed inoculation:

            Cultivating the seed with a Rhizobial seed inoculation increases the plant's ability to obtain nitrogen from the air and good yield. To inject Rhizobial seed inoculation for one acre, sprinkle it on the seed in the form of syrup by adding about 150 g of jaggery or sugar in three glasses i.e. 750 ml of water. Then mix the seeds and the inoculation well by adding the proposed amount of inoculation to the seed so that the seed is mix homogenously. Cultivate seeds immediately after drying in shade as the advantage of the inoculation gradually decreases over time. This can be obtained from National Agricultural Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and Nuclear Institute for Biology and Genetics (NIBGE) Jhang Road Faisalabad.

Seed Availability:

            Seeds of approved varieties can be obtained from NIAB Faisalabad, Research Institute for Pulses Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI) Faisalabad, Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal and NARC Islamabad.


Suitable land and its preparation:

Lentil crop can be successfully cultivated in rain fed areas with moderate rainfall and average fertile land, as well as loam to clay loam lands. The saline soil is not suitable for its cultivation. In order to prepare the land, must chisel plough once, which not only destroys the weeds, but also eliminates the insects and diseases that grow in them and water is also conserve in the rain fed areas. Ploughing twice makes the land ready for cultivation. It is necessary to plank after ploughing. This will make the soil soft and level the ground, the other is that moisture can be retained in the soil for a longer time, which will improve the seed germination. The cultivation of lentil in irrigated areas is very profitable. All the essentials for lentil cultivation are easily available in these areas and the yield of 15 to 20 maund per acre can be easily achieved. Intercropping of lentil in cultivation of sugarcane in September and in the orchard is recommended. In September cultivation of sugarcane, lentils should be cultivate in the first fortnight of November.

Time to cultivate:

            It is very important to cultivate the crop at the right time to get better yield. advanced and delayed crop generally gives low yield because the advance crop grows more vegetative, while the delayed crop grows less vegetative. In both cases, production decreases. Cultivate lentil in more fertile land and Cultivate lentils in Mid-November in September Cultivation Sugarcane. Lentil should be cultivated as per the following table.

Lentil cultivation area and suitable time cultivation


Time to cultivate

Narowal, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Chakwal

15 October to 30 October

Bhakkar, Rajanpur, Muzaffargarh, Jhang, Mandi Bahauddin, Gujrat, Faisalabad and other areas of South Punjab

End October to November 15


Method of Cultivation:

            Always cultivate lentil in wet condition so that the germination is better. With proper adjustment, automatic rabbi drill or single row drill or can also be sown by tying with plough. If these implements are not available, then it can also be done with Kera method. The distance between rows should be 10 to 12 inches (25 to 30 cm) and the distance between plants should be 3 to 4 inches (7.5 to 10 cm).

Cultivation on Ridges:

            The rainfall system is constantly changing. Cultivation of lentils on ridges has proved to be a useful method to avoid the loss of unexpected rains. Its experiments have been conducted for three consecutive years at adaptive research farm Kot Nainan, according to which cultivation on ridges give better yield than the prevailing method of cultivation. For this, after preparing the land, broadcast the seeds, plough and plank to mix the seeds in the soil and later make ridges with the help of Ridger. Keep the seed rate 8 to 10 kg per acre for cultivation on ridges.

Intercropping of lentil in cultivated sugarcane in September:

Intercropping of lentil has proved to be good in September cultivation in Sugarcane, if the land becomes hard due to irrigation, then prepare the land by plough with 3 tines adjusted when water moisture retained and sowing should be done with single row drill. If the area is large, the crop can be cultivated by planting it with an adjusted cultivator. Cultivate two lines of lentil on the ridges in the cultivated sugarcane at a distance of 4 or 4.5 feet. Cultivate one line of lentil in the cultivated sugarcane at a distance of 2 to 2.5 feet. 5 to 6 kg seeds are required for intercropping of lentil. In this way, 10 to 12 maund per acre production of lentils can be obtained in September cultivated sugarcane and also has a good impact on sugarcane production.


Lentil diseases and their control:


Mode of damage


1. Blight
(Ascochyta lentis)

Brown spots or pustules form on the leaves. In case of severe attack, the stem breaks down from the affected area.

  • Use seed of resistance varieties Masoor 93, NIAB Masoor 2002, Chakwal Masoor, Punjab Masoor 2009 and Punjab Masoor 2020.
  •  Cultivate the seeds by applying the recommended fungicide.
  •  Destroy affected crop residue.

2. Grey Mold
(Botrytis cinerea)

Brown fungi attack the upper parts of plants when the crop is in flowering stage. Flowers fall and the grains in the pods become less and wrinkled.

  • Destroy the affected plants and their residues.
  • Take seeds from a healthy crop.
  • Do not allow the crop to grow too densely and increase.
  • Cultivate seeds by applying recommended fungicides

3. Rust
(Uromyces fabae)
(Puccinia spp).

Yellow spots appear at the lower surface of the leaves in the form of circles that later turns brown and black in color

  • Destroy the affected plants and their remains.
  • Cultivate Masoor 93, Chakwal Masoor, Punjab Masoor 2009 or NIAB Masoor 2002.

4. Wilt
(Fusarium oxysporum)

The disease is more common in the barani and dry areas. Disease-infected plants suddenly wilt and dry up. The disease can appear at any stage of plant growth. The affected plants appear in the form of patches in the field.

    • Cultivate crop after 15th October in irrigated areas.
    • If possible, remove infected plants.
    • Adopt Crops rotation
    • Use healthy seeds of resistant varieties Punjab Masoor 2009 and Punjab Masoor 2020.

5. Stem Rot
(Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

 The stem of the plant rots and the plants dry up and die. Black (Sclerotia) appear near the soil on the stem.

  • Remove affected plants and their residues.
  • Do not allow standing water in the field or give light irrigation.
  •  Use healthy seeds of resistant varieties Punjab Masoor 2009 and Punjab Masoor 2020.

6. Root Rot
Macrophomina phaseolina)

The root bark is broken into pieces and the root is rotten. Plants suddenly wilt, affected plants can be easily pulled out from the ground.

  • Adopt Crops rotation.
  • Cultivate the seeds by applying the recommended fungicide.

7. Collar Rot 
& Root Rot

(Phytphthora megasperma)

First, light brown spots appear on the stems of plants, which later wrap the stem in the presence of moisture and turns black. Effect on upper stems. First the stem and then the roots of the plant rots and the plants wilting and dry.

  • Cultivate resistant varieties.
  • Remove affected plants at initial.
  • Do not over irrigation to crop.


Lentil pests and their control:





Grass Hopper

The insect color is clayey, body is strong and trigon shape.

Grass Hopper Chews and eats small plants of growing crop.

  • Removal of weeds grown in fields, water channels and ridges.
  • Spray Bifenthrin 10 EC in fields by mixing 300ml per 100 liters of water at evening.

Cut worm 

The moth is large in size and the color of the wings are brown. There is a kidney shaped spot towards the edges of the front wings. On back wings are white or yellow. The color of the larva is black and quite large in height.

The worms are hidden in the soil near the plants during the day and damage the crop by cutting small plants at night.

  • Cut unused vegetables and collect leaves and keep them in piles in the evening and destroy the hidden caterpillars under these piles in the morning.
  • Apply water after hoeing.
  • Spray Bifenthrin 10 EC in fields by mixing 300ml per 100 liters of water at evening


It is small in height and green or yellow in color. secretions come out of the ducts on the back side of the abdomen. The insect is present in both winged and unwinged conditions. When the crop is close to being ripe, this insect becomes black in color and winged, this insect moves very slowly.

Both adults and larva suck sap from lower leaf surface, soft twigs, new branches and flowers. Their body releases secretions on which fungi grow and the process of photosynthesis is severely affected.

  • Even the use of chemicals should be avoided.
  • Weeds should be eradicated.
  • Removal of weeds. Rain also reduces the number of these insects.
  • Encourage beneficial insects, especially the bird beetle.
  • For chemical control Spray Imidacloprid 200 SL 200ml per 100 liter water or Acetamiprid 250 wp 125 g by mixing it with per 100 liters of water.

Pod borer (Helicoverpa)

The color of moth is yellow and brown. The color of the larva is greenish oriented. Pupa is dark black brown in color. larva changes its color depending on the weather and food.

The worm enters the pods by making holes and keeps eating grains.

  • Destroy weeds. If the crop contains insect eggs, apply 100 tricograma cards per acres.
  • tricograma cards can be obtained from laboratories set up by the Department of Agriculture Extension including Okara, Sahiwal, Pakpattan, Vehari, Faisalabad, Toba Tek Singh, Sheikhupura, Hafizabad, Jhang, Layyah and Muzaffargarh districts.
  • Sparrow eats worms likely, so provide space by tie ropes with trees or sticks for them to sit in the fields
  • Use light traps.
  • • Destroy the pupa hidden in the ground
  • For chemical control Spray Emamectin 200 ml per 100 liters of water.

Army worm 

The moth is light brown in color. front wings are dark brown, with a network of white lines on the top surface and black spots somewhere, while the rear is gray. The color of larva is greenish brown. There are white lines on the body. They fall round immediately after touching by hands.

In case of a severe attack, the worms destroy the plants in the form of an army and invade from one field to another.

  • Dig trenches around the invaded fields so that the worms do not move to other fields.
  • Water should be poured into these trenches and kerosene should be poured.
  • Birds like to eat army worm so, encourage these birds.
  • Weeds should be removed.
  • collect and destroy eggs and small caterpillars by hand.
  •  In the beginning the attack takes place in patches and the caterpillars are in sufficient numbers in one place, at which time their control is effective and less expensive.
  • For chemical control Spray Emamectin 1.9 EC 200ml by mixing it per 100 liter water.


This insect lives in the form of a family, in which kings, queens, soldiers and workers are there. Crops are damaged only by workers, whose color is light yellow, the head is larger and the size is larger than the normal ant.

Attacks on the roots of plants and makes tunnel in the ground. The attacked plants dry up. Termite attack can be occurred from crop germination to harvesting

  • Use well decomposed and ready to use manure instead of raw dung manure.
  • Remove Weeds and crop residues.
  •  Rain or irrigation the crop slightly reduces severe attack.
  • In barani areas, Apply Chlorpyrifos 40 EC 1.5 liters per 10 kg of soil or sand and when there is a possibility of rain, broadcast in the fields.while using it when applying water in the irrigated areas.
  • Timely irrigation also reduces termite attack attack.

Note: Consult with Agricultural Extension Staff for the selection and quantity of recommended sprays.

Control of desert locusts:

The desert locust can be easily controlled when it is in a nymph state while the adult moth is a bit difficult to control. The ways to control this are as follows.

Physical Control:

  • Identify the places with its eggs and dig their sacs with the help of ramba or plough and leave them for the birds and insects to eat.
  • As soon as the spider eggs are identified in the soil, where holes found dig 2 to 3 feet deep and wide trenches around and bury the spiderlings gathered in them in the soil or sprinkle the chemical recommended by the Department of Agriculture.
  • Stop the locust army from sitting on the crops by smoking, beating drums or bursting crackers.
  • With flame thrower, fire on a flying swarm of locusts.
  • To kill a swarm of desert locusts sitting on the ground, use plank or leave flocks of sheep.

Biological Control:

  • Starling, Myna and crows help to reduce the number of desert locusts by hunting them.
  • The adults of the Hispa are beneficial insects and eat desert locusts.

Chemical Control:

  • The locust swarm attack should be identified by the nambardar or patwari or to the local administration or agronomists.
  • Identify the trees and locust swarms sitting on the ground after the sunset and spray the recommended chemical before sunrise of next morning.
  • Mix carbaryl 85WP with bran or wheat straw in the ratio of 1:25 and prepare the chemical bait and sprinkle it on the army.
  • To control desert locust by chemical method, spray the following chemical with a Knapsack power spray machine and on trees and crops with a tractor mounted machine.

Recommended spray


Lambda-cyhalothrin 2.5 EC


Deltamethrin 2.5 EC






Weed Control

The main reason for the decrease in lentil production is the abundance of weeds because the plants of this crop are small and tendor. The weeds that damage the lentil crop includes Meena, Bathu, Karund, Piazi, Dambi Sitti, Shahtara, Lehli, Rewari and Mattri etc. Adopt the following methods to remove weeds:

  • Spray herbicide in consultation with the local extension staff of the Agriculture Department to control weeds in canal or rainfed areas where there is adequate moisture in soil.
  • At the time of sowing in adequate moisture, spray the recommended amount of poison mixed with the required amount of water. Spraying usually requires 150 liters of water per acre. The poison affects the surface in the presence of moisture in the soil. Therefore, the use of poison on sandy soils on dry surface is not successful.
  • If the weeds grow, then after 30 to 40 days of germination of the crop and after 70 to 80 days, remove it by hoeing. The field should be weeds free before flowering on the crop.



The lentil plant is capable of withstanding drought. Therefore, it does not need much irrigation and the crop is ripe due to rains, but if there is less rain than usual, then water should be given before flowering and beans formation, due to which flowers and beans are more and grains become thicker.


Use of fertilizers:

            Lentil is a leguminous crop and is capable of getting nitrogen from the air, so this crop needs less nitrogen fertilizer, but the use of phosphorus fertilizer increases production. To get a maximum yield, use fertilizer according to the following rate.

Nutrients (kg per acre)

Amount of fertilizer (bags per acre)




At land preparing







1 bag DAP + half bag SOP + 10 kg urea or

 1 bag triple superphosphate + half bag urea + half bag SOP or

 2.5 bags SSP (18%) + Half bag Urea + Half bag SOP



The lentil crop matures in the northern districts of Punjab in mid-April and in the remaining of the districts from end March to start April and is ready for harvest. The delay in harvesting leads to the shed of beans pod, which causes a decrease in production, so when 80 percent of the beans are ripe, it should be harvested. The crop should be harvested early in the morning so that the beans and grains do not shed. After harvesting, dry the crop in small piles in the sun for a few days, collect it in a solid place and thresh it and separate the grain from the husk. Threshers can also be used for this. After cleaning the grain, dry it further in the sun and store it in a clean store.


Storing the grains of lentil:

            Spray the recommended poison mixed with water to make the store insect-free. If the stored seed is attacked by insects, so use Agtoxin tablets 40 to 50 per thousand cubic feet. Close all doors, windows, and lights tightly before placing tablets in the store so that the air circulation is closed. Leave the tablets for a week and keep the store closed. Enter the warehouse three hours after opening the warehouse so that the toxic gas is discharged well outside.

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