Gram is an important bean like rabi crop. Due to its bean like nature it takes nitrogen from the air and adds it to the earth which retains the fertility of earth. In regard to its nutritious value, it is an important food and a substitute of meat.



Gram is an important legume food crop of Rabi and occupies an important place in pulses. Last year, the gram crop in Punjab was cultivated on more than 19,50,000 acres, which is about 80 percent of its total area in the country. In Punjab, most of the area of gram is cultivated in rainfed areas, including the districts of Bhakkar, Khushab, Layyah, Jhang and Mianwali. The economy of farmers in the rainfed areas of these districts is largely dependent on this crop. Gram is said to be a substitute for meat in terms of nutrition. Being a legume crop, it obtains nitrogen from the air and adds it to the soil, which restores the fertility of the soil. The use of Kabuli gram in the country is increasing day by day, to fulfill which it is imported from different countries. The water requirement of kabuli gram is higher than that of desi gram, so most desi varieties of gram are cultivated in rainfed areas. In order to increase the production of kabuli gram, it is necessary to develop better varieties and increase the area under its cultivation. Kabuli gram cultivation is being cultivated as intercropping in September cultivated sugarcane and rice. The farmers are requested to adopt approved varieties and modern production technology so that the yield per acre of gram can be increased.

Area under cultivation and production of gram in Punjab




Average yield

thousand hectares

thousand acre

 thousand tonns

 (kg per hectare)

Maund (37.324)per acre

Maund (40kg) per acre




































Reason for decrease in area in 2020-21:

  • Area of Gram shifted to other crops

Reasons for decline in production in 2020-21:

  • Prolonged dry weather and no rain during crop growth
  • Reduction in cultivated area


Approved varieties of desi gram:

  1. Thal-2020

Thal-2020 is a new variety of desi gram with high productivity developed by The Arid Zone Research Institute, Bhakkar. Its average production is 25 maunds per acre. This type of gram is very suitable for cultivation in Rain fed and Canal Irrigated areas of Punjab. It has resistance against the diseases of gram crop.

  1. Bittle-2016

            Bittle-2016 is a variety of desi gram with high productivity has been developed by the Pulses Research Institute, Faisalabad. This type of thick grain with resistance against gram diseases blight and wilt and has productivity 3993 kg per hectare (approximately 40maund per acre). While its average production is 23 maunds per acre. Suitable for cultivation in all areas.

  1. NIAB CH-104

            This type of desi gram is developed by NIAB Faisalabad through nuclear flames. Besides high productivity, Niab CH-104 Has a moderate resistance against both blight and wilt diseases. It is protected from yellowness. it’s grains are thick. This type is suitable for cultivation in both rain fed and canal areas of Punjab.

  1. NIAB CH-2016

            This variety of desi gram is also prepared in NIAB Faisalabad. Besides good productivity, this type has a moderate resistance against dangerous gram diseases blight and wilt. The grains are thick and beautiful in shape This type is suitable for cultivation in both rain fed and canal areas of Punjab.

  1. Bhakkar 2011

            This type of desi gram has the best resistance against blight, root rot/ wilt besides having high productivity. Its grains are thick. This type is protected from yellowness. Suitable for cultivation in irrigated and rain fed areas. In addition, it also has resistance against frost. Its 1,000 grains weigh up to 276 grams. This type is early ripen as compare to other and Which also prevents extreme hot. Its productivity is up to 3800 kg per hectare and the average production is 2200 kg per hectare in irrigated areas and 1500 kg per hectare in the rain fed areas. This type of gram is developed by Arid Zone Research Institute, Bhakkar.

  1. Punjab 2008

            This type of gram with better productivity has better resistance against blight, wilt and yellowness. Its grains are thick and have the best productivity. This variety is suitable for cultivation not only in irrigated but also in rain fed areas. It can be cultivated from 15th October to 7th November keeping in view the weather conditions. This type of gram has been developed by Pulses Research Institute, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad.

  1. Bilksar. 2000

            This type of desi gram is developed by The Barani Agricultural Research Institute, Chakwal. Both blight and wilt have moderate resistance against diseases as well as high productivity. It is very suitable for cultivation in Pothohar area.

Approved varieties of kabuli gram

  1. Rohi Chana-21

            Rohi Chana-21 is a type of high productivity of Kabuli gram. Its grains are large in size, due to which the best alternative to imported gram. This type is developed by the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur. It is very suitable for cultivation in Bahawalpur and south Punjab areas. Its productivity is up to 28 maund per acre.

  1. Noor-2019

            Noor-2019 Is a type of high productivity of Kabuli gram. Its productivity is up to 29 maund per acre. This type has resistance against the wilt and blight. It is more suitable for canal and irrigated areas of Punjab. It has 23.19% protein content.

  1. Noor-2013

            Noor-2013 is a high productivity type of Kabuli gram. This type is thick, good shaped and attractive in colour. Its grain is as thick as imported grams and tastes like local varieties. Its 1000 grains weigh more than 320 grams. Its productivity is up to 30 maund per acre. This type has better resistance against the wilt and is suitable for cultivation in the irrigated and high rainfall Barani districts of Punjab.

  1. Taman-2013

            It is a more productive type of Kabuli gram. Its grains are medium sized and hence it is the best alternative to imported grams. Its productivity is 27 maund per acre and has resistance against drought. This type is a more productive type in the Barani and Pothohar regions.

  1. Noor-2009

             This type of Kabuli gram has better productivity and has a moderate resistance against diseases. It is suitable for cultivation in the canal and rain fed areas of Punjab.

  1. CM-2008

            This type of kabuli gram has been developed in NIAB Faisalabad. This variety produces the best in low water areas, barani areas and Pothohar. This type has better resistance against wilt and a moderate resistance against blight.

Seed Rate

Use clean, pure and healthy 30 kg seeds per acre of grain varieties of desi and Kabuli gram, while do not use thick grain varieties less than 35 kg per acre. One acre should have 85 to 95 thousand plants. If thick grains are grown by grading the seed, the plants will be healthy from beginning and good growth will increase the production. Remember that the seed germination rate should be 85%.

Seed Treatment

            To protect the crop from diseases, apply recommended systemic fungicides to seed before sowing.

Rhizobial seed inoculation 

            Cultivating the seed with a Rhizobial seed inoculation increases the plant's ability to obtain nitrogen from the air and good yield. To inject Rhizobial seed inoculation for one acre, sprinkle it on the seed in the form of syrup by adding about 150 g of jaggery or sugar in three glasses i.e. 750 ml of water. Then mix the seeds and the inoculation well by adding the proposed amount of inoculation to the seed so that the seed is mix homogenously. Cultivate seeds immediately after drying in shade as the advantage of the inoculation gradually decreases over time. This can be obtained from National Agricultural Research Institute (NARC), Islamabad, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and Nuclear Institute for Biology and Genetics (NIBGE) Jhang Road Faisalabad.

Availability of seed

The seed of recommended/promoted varieties can be obtained from Punjab Seed Corporation, NIAB Faisalabad, Pulses Research Institue Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad, Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal and Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI) Bhakkar. Punjab Seed Corporation has a number of different varieties of seeds available this year.

Availability of different varieties of seeds with Punjab Seed Corporation

Sr. No.

Name of Variety

Seed quantity (40kg) Bags














9137 (bags)

Note: Farmers are requested not to cultivate the same variety frequently in a field which declines production.


Time of Cultivation:   

   cultivate gram crop by farmer at recommended time. The production is affected due to less growth of the late cultivation of crop while the growth of the early cultivated crop is high. Punjab province is divided into five parts in terms of time cultivation.

Sr No.


Time of Cultivation


Attock, Chakwal

25 September to 15 October


Jehlum, Rawalpindi, Gujrat, Narowal

15 October to 10 November


Thal) Bhakkar, Khushab, Mianwali, Layyah, Jhang

(a) Barani

(b) Irrigation




20 October to 15 November


Irrigated Areas) Faisalabad, Sahiwal Multan, Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar and other districts of Central and South Punjab

End October to 15 November


More fertile and September cultivation in Sugarcane

20 October to 10 November

Suitable land and its preparation:

Sandy loam and average fertile soils are more suitable for the cultivation of gram. Water logged and Saline affected soil is not suitable for its cultivation. There is no need for much preparation of land for the gram crop but still it is necessary to plough once or twice for the preparation of land in the irrigated areas. In irrigated areas, it is very important to plough the field deep and eradicate wild grass, previous crop residues and weeds etc. Then, once again, the land should be well levelled by ploughing and planking. Deep ploughing is necessary before or during monsoon rains in the Barani areas for gram cultivation so that the moisture conserve and weeds are also destroyed. In sandy and soft land in Barani areas, the sowing should be done without preparing the land so that moisture is conserved. However, in the sloping fields in the Barani areas, which are called dareer in the local language, it is necessary to use harrows in the opposite direction of the slope. Otherwise, soil erosion is occurred and channel is formed and rainwater is not absorbed into the ground. Once plough in the sandy soil, which will not only destroy the weeds but also help in controlling the insects. Plough deep by planking. At the time of cultivation of gram in the barn, if the soil has less moisture or deep, leave the field after plough and plank a week before cultivation so that the moisture conserves. This method is called the dab method which improves the crop germination considerably.

method of cultivation:

For good germination, cultivate by drill or pour keep the distance between rows 30 cm (one foot) while the distance between rows in loam soil and in areas of high rainfall should be 45 cm (1.5 feet) and the middle distance between plants should be 15 cm (6 inches).

Intercropping of gram in September cultivated sugarcane

Intercropping of gram in September cultivated sugarcane has proved successful. At a distance of 4 feet, cultivate two gram lines between the beds in the cultivated sugarcane crop, while at a distance of 2- 2.5 feet, cultivate a line of gram in the cultivated sugarcane crop. Use seed quantity of 15-20 kg per acre in this method of cultivation. In the field where gram crop is being cultivated first time, the seed must be given Rhizobial seed inoculation which increases the ability of the plant to obtain nitrogen from the air and yields more.



The two major diseases of gram are blight and wilt, which adversely affect the production. Gram blight disease can grow at high humidity and suitable temperatures and become epidemic and can spread all the cultivated area of the crop. There is a significant decrease in crop production. The disease of gram wilt adversely affects the crop in hot and dry weather. In the last few years, Discrimination was possible in affected areas of gram blight i.e. Rawalpindi, Attock and Chakwal districts and the areas affected by gram wilt i.e. lower Punjab and Sindh. But nowadays, in view of the change in weather conditions, gram is appearing more intensely. The details and control about Gram diseases are as follows.


Mode of attack


(Ascochyta Rabie)

Initially, brown spots appear on all the leaves of the plant. The spots on the leaves are initially small black dots. Under favorable weather conditions, these spots grow and spread to all parts of the plant and the whole field is affected by the disease and it looks as if the field has been burnt. For this reason, the disease has been named Jhalsao. If the weather is dry from January to the end of March, the symptoms of the disease decrease, but if the rains begin during these days, the disease spreads rapidly and destroys the entire crop.

  • Cultivate approved varieties that are resistant to disease. These include Bilksar 2000, Bittle 2016 Punjab 2008, Vanhar 2000, Bittle 98, CM 98, CM 2008, NIAB CH 2016, Bhakkar 2011, Noor 2013 and Noor 91.
  • Do not leave gram husk in the field after harvest. It is very important to do this before the rainy season.
  • Before cultivating gram, apply fungicide to the healthy seeds.

(Fusarium oxysporum and 
Phytophthora megasperma)


Temperatures play an important role in the spread of the disease, so the disease strikes in October and March. In case of attack, the plants wither and dry up. F. oxysporum attacks in rainy and dry areas while P. megasperma attacks mostly in irrigated areas. Wilting can also occur in the early stages of plant growth and young and mature plants can also be affected by the disease. In case of disease on mature plants, the seeds either do not form at all or remain small and the yield is severely affected. In the case of attack, the ducts carrying food and water inside the stem of the plant become paralyzed and the plant begins to wither.


  • Cultivate approved varieties that are resistant to disease e-g Bilksar 2000, Bittle 2016 Punjab 2008, Vanhar 2000, Bittle 98, CM 98, CM 2008, NIAB CH 2016, Bhakkar 2011, Noor 2013 and Noor 91.
  • Before cultivating gram, apply fungicide to the seed. This can protect the plant from attack in the early stages.
  • Adopt crop rotation.


Root Rot
(Complex cause
Rhizoctonia sp.
Macrophomina sp)

In the case of an attack of this disease, the bark of the root of the plant is torn to pieces and the root gradually rots. The plants suddenly wither. Plants suffering from this disease can be easily pulled out. This disease also appears in the form of pieces in the field which gradually grows.

  • Adopt crop rotation.
  • Cultivate the seed with proper fungicide.
  • Gram should not be cultivated for the next 2 to 3 years in the field most affected by the disease.

Grey Mold 
(Botrytis cinerea)

In case of attack of this disease, a brown fungus appears on the upper parts of the plants at the time of flowering. The flowers drop off and the pods become small and wrinkled.

  • Destroy infected plants and their residues so that the next crop can be protected from this disease.
  • Take the seeds from a healthy crop.
  • Don't let the crop grow too dense and grow too much.
  • Apply fungicide to the seed before cultivation.

Stem rot
(Sclerotinia minor)

The disease is found mostly in irrigated areas. In this disease, the lower part of the stems of the plants (Collar portion) is affected and rots. Initially, the affected part turns black. The plant dries out.

  • Do not cultivate gram crop in the affected field for at least three years.
  • Adopt crop rotation.
  • Thoroughly destroy plant residues from the affected field.
  • In the month of June and July, let the field remain empty for some time by ploughing the soil in the empty field.


Harmful insects of gram and their control:






This insect lives in the form of a family. It consists of kings, queens, soldiers and workers. Crops are damaged only by workers, whose color is light yellow, the head is larger and the size is larger than the normal ant.

Attacks plant roots and makes tunnels in the ground. Invaded plants wither. Termites can attack crops from germination to harvest

  • Do not use raw cow dung manure in the fields at all.
  • Timely irrigation also reduces termite attack.
  • Mix adequate amount of chemical in sand or mud in rainfed areas and scatter it in the fields at the time of preparing the land.

Grass hopper

The insect's color is clayey and trigon shape.

It cuts and eats the emerging plants of the growing crop.

  • Grab and destroy the adult grass hopper from the net.
  • Keep the field free from any kinds of weeds.

Cut worm

The moth is large in size and the color of the wings are brown. There is a kidney shaped spot towards the edges of the front wings. On back wings are white or yellow. The color of the larva is black and quite large in height.

The larvae hide in the soil near the plants during the day and damage the crop by cutting the small plants at night.

  • Cut unusable leaves and vegetables and keep them in the form of piles in the evening and destroy the hidden larvae under these piles in the morning.
  • Apply irrigation after hoeing.


It is small in height and green or yellow in color. secretions come out of the ducts on the back side of the abdomen. The insect is present in both winged and unwinged conditions. When the crop is close to being ripe, this insect becomes black in color and winged, this insect moves very slowly.

It sucks sap from the lower surface of the leaves, which weakens the plants. It releases a sugary secretion on which black mold grows which affects the process of photosynthesis. It causes the spread of viral diseases.

  • Destroy the weeds.
  • Encourage useful insects, especially ladybird beetle or Chrysoperla

Army Worm

The moth is light brown in color. front wings are dark brown, with a network of white lines on the top surface and black spots somewhere, while the rear is gray. The color of larva is greenish brown. There are white lines on the body. They fall round immediately after touching by hands.

In case of a severe attack, the worms destroy the plants in the form of an army and invade from one field to another.

  • Dig trenches around the invaded fields so that larvae cannot move to other fields.
  • chemical should be done in these trenches or kerosene should be poured by applying water.
  • Birds eat armyworm with interest, so encourage birds.
  • Weeds should be destroyed.
  • Destroy the pupa hidden in the ground.
  • In the beginning, the attack takes place in patches and there are a large number of larvae in one place. At this time their control is more effective and less expensive.

Pod borer

The color of moth is yellow and brown. The color of the larva is greenish oriented. Pupa is dark black brown in color. larva changes its color depending on the weather and food.

The worm enters the pods by making holes and keeps eating grains.

  • weeds should be destroyed.
  • Sparrows eat caterpillars with great interest, so they should be provided space in the fields by tying ropes with trees or sticks to sit.
  • Apply light traps


For chemical control of pests, consult the staff of the Department of Agriculture to select chemicals that are effective against harmful insects and less harmful to farmer-friendly insects.

Weed Control

Weed Control:

            Weed control is very important in the gram crop from beginning. The gram crop is damaged by Piyazi, bathu, Karund, chankani booti, lehli, rut fulai, dambi sitti and rewari. Weeds can be controlled in the following ways:

By Hoeing:

            Prefer hoeing instead of weedicides if weed numbers are low. Do the first hoeing 30-40 days after the crop germination and the second hoeing one month after the first hoeing. Weed control in sandy areas are very easy to get by rotary.

By Weedicides:

            The use of chemical poison is a very effective way to control weeds However, it should be used very carefully in the Barani areas. Use poisons in consultation with local extension staff of Punjab Agriculture Department for weed control.

Usage method of weedicide:

            At the time of preparation of land in The Barani areas, mix the recommended poison in 15 to 20 kg of sand and broadcast it in the field. Then last plough and cultivate the crop with a drill. The recommended amount of poison before sowing in irrigated areas can be sprayed by mixing the recommended amount of water in 150 liters per acre. Spray can be done even after sowing.


Irrigation in gram crop:

            The gram crop needs less water. The success of the crop in the Thal areas depends on the rains. The average winter rains are enough for the success of the crop. Production is affected in case of less rainfall. In case of no rain in the irrigated areas, apply light irrigation, especially if the crop dry when flowering. Give the first irrigation to the kabuli gram 60-70 days after sowing and the second when the flower appears. The crop cultivated after rice does not need irrigation. Keep in view of frost, Irrigation the gram crop from December 20 to January 15 in view of the frost as per requirement.

Controlling the height of the gram crop:

If the height of the gram crop increases due to early cultivation, excess fertilizer or rain, etc., then dry stress to appropriate extent. Or pruning of branches 2 months after sowing. Increased height reduces flowering late and less.


usage of fertilizers:

The gram crop requires less nitrogen fertilizer because it is capable of preparing to its nitrogenic fertilizer requirement to a great extent, which is further aggravated by Rhizobial seed inoculation. However, the use of phosphorus fertilizer increases production by producing thick grains and more in numbers. For usage of fertilizer, the field must have adequate water moisture. To determine the quantity of fertilizer, get the soil analysis from laboratory, however before sowing in the irrigated areas, apply fertilizer as per the recommendations given while preparing the land.

For Irrigated Areas

Nutrients (kg per acre)

Quantity of fertilizer (bag per acre)



At sowing



1.5 bag DAP or 1 bag Nitrophos + 1 bag Triple Super Phosphate or Half Bag Urea + 4 bag SSP (18%)

For Rain fed areas

Nutrients (kg per acre)

Quantity of fertilizer (bag per acre)



At sowing



1 kg DAP

Note: Use 1/2 to 1 bag of potash fertilizer per acre in light soils, Drill fertilizer in sandy barani areas where sowing is done without preparing the land.

Importance of potash fertilizer for gram crop

Usage of potash fertilizers meets the nutritional needs of the crop, increases resistance against diseases and increases the production of gram. Therefore, to obtain good production of gram, you must use 1/2 to 1 bag of potash fertilizer per acre, especially in light soils.


In the central areas of Punjab, the harvesting of gram is generally started in end April and in the northern areas started in May. Loss in pods due to delay in harvesting of the ripe crop is lead to reduction in production, so 80% of the pods when ripen. Morning is suitable for harvesting. Before the seed is to be planted, it must be cleaned from unapproved and disease affected plants. After drying the harvested crop in the sun, threshing with thresher. Dry and clean the seed and store it.


Warehouse Fumigation

Burn 7kg of wood per thousand cubic feet to make the store insect-free and keep the store closed for 48 hours or Spray recommended pesticides. Dip the old bags in water with recommended poison ratio and dry them. For further caution, use toxic gas tablets in the store at 40 to 50 tablets per thousand cubic feet.

Crop Calendar

Crop Plan

Download Crop Plan